Problems Of Air Pollution In Enugu Urban Area, A Case Study Of Enugu Urban
Years back, the attention given to air pollution was too low dispute its contribution to most of the ill health that the populace suffer from one space to another through air. In this research work, the effects of air pollution as it effects the populace that are residing in the study area was considered. The approach was based on the data collected from the questionnaire observation and interviews in the chosen zones. From analysis, result shown in the table 4. 7c proved that places of high human and this was ascertained when the calculated valuex2 of 11. 63 is greater than the critical value of 9.49. In conclusion it is clear in the work the air pollution has a serious effects in the more populated zones.
INTRODUCTION / LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Air population is defined by the new encyclopedia Britanica (1999) as the change in biological condition in the environment, which is harmful and effect the quality of human life, including effect on other animals and plants, industries, culture and aesthetic assets. Although air pollution is attributed generally to material substances, like gases, particulate matters, solid wastes paper glass and non-material substance like excess of noise and as well as water, land and air. Therefore air pollution then occur where people and their activities are contracted. Air pollution then, is the case when the air is considered polluted through the alterations in its composition and condition, either directly or indirectly as a result of the activities of man. So that it becomes less suitable for some or all of the uses fir which it would have been in its natural states. Therefore air pollution is increasingly becoming a problem in Enugu urban.
Man is the main polluted in enugu urban. The uses up energy directly from natural resource like coal , to manufacturing and production, thereby cresting problems of disposal or waste material from the manufactured goods. Cities have grown in an unmonitored manner, which then led to problems of environmental pollution. The environmental pollution of big cities can be related to the environmental deterioration of Enugu urban. This is why a clean up campaign tagged “Operation keeps Enugu Clean” was declared, the need for preservation and protection of Enugu, also brought about the introduction of an environmental protection body called Enugu state environmental protection agency, which is known as Enugu state weast management agency (ESWAMA)
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Air pollution has been a series problem facing urban now; it has hazardous effect on the environment. It destroys the environment, water and soil, thus the effect of pollution on any of the basic biological necessities of man, are normally disastrous. Illness and death of man can be easily associated with a polluted air. Air pollution are known to produce eye and respiratory irritation in human, as well as animals. Generally the health and physical well being of all individual who breathe polluted air is affected, worse still man is losing the taste of good air. Water pollution problems are death to both man the aquatic life, it increase water born disease, changes the colour and salinity of the water and as well make way for scarcity of available pollution water through pollution of the sources.
Noise pollution can affect a person psychological and physical well –being, people who are exposed to loud noises of long duration have an increase in blood pressure and mental disorderliness. Loud noises pf long duration has increase in blood pressure, and mental disorderliness.
Loud pollution leads to reduction in the fertility of the soil and conversely reduce productivity, it as well make way for other sources of pollution like of under ground water. The health implication of pollution cannot be over stressed; the hazards caused by pollutant on the inhabitants of any area can be devastating.
- AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim and objective of the study is to enhance and develop important measures to the pollution in the environment which if considered and applied will lead to increased and better standard of living potentials in the environment this can be achieved through the following objectives.
- To determine the general awareness of the public on air pollution
- Identify major in the study area
- Identify the sources of air pollution
- Identify the effect of air pollution on inhabitants
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
In order to carry out the research effectively the
Following questions are asked.
- What is the level of awareness of air pollution?
- What are the sources of air pollution?
- What is the health effect of air pollution?
- What measures are put in place to reduce air pollution?
- How effective are the measures that are put in place
- HI: There is a strong relationship between wind speed and directed and air pollution.
- H0: there is a week relationship between speed and directed and air pollutants.
iii. Hi: there is a strong relationship between temperature variation and the rate of air pollutants.
- Ho: there is a weak relationship between temperature variation and the rate of air pollutants.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study is to make the public understand fully what air pollution is, the effect it can have on their various activities. It also to enable them participate with government agencies and authorities in finding control measures for air pollution. The problem of air pollution is a global concern with rapid urbanization and industrialization. The air is being polluted by the activities of man. This leads to unhealthy and unsafe environmrnt to live in and something has to be done to reduce the level of air pollution in order to reduce the hazards associated with it.
- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research on the problem of air pollution in Enugu a area is of significance because of threat, it poses on the lives of the people of Enugu urban area. The problem of air pollution helps to make the public understand fully, what air pollution is and the effect it can have on their various activities. It also enables the public to participate with government agencies and authorities in finding control measure for air pollution. Those that will benefit from this research include government authorities like ENSWAMA, which is responsible for keeping the environment clean. The health sector will also find this research useful because some air pollutants are health hazards. Agriculturists also are not left out as some air pollutants affect the growth and productivity of crops and livestock. This research will be immense benefit to environmentalist and some NGO’s carrying out research on air pollution.
The researches encounter some problems during this research study. This problem causes some limitation to the effectiveness of this research. There were limited resources to carryout all that require to be done because of the dearth of book in our libraries, literature, materials etc. Another problem was the shortness of the time allocated for this project.
- THE STUDY AREA
Enugu urban lat 6:27N 70 27 1/E, the capital of Enugu State and locate at the foot of UDI escarpment Enugu urban /or the state covers the government residential. Area New Heaven and Independence Layout, Uwani /Achare Layout/Maryland to the south and Ogbete /Iva Valley to the west. Enugu Urban environment includes the central business district (cbd), Emene Industrial Layout, the high-density residential Area Of Abapka Nike and its neighbourhood. Enugu has a rapid population growth, which in turn affects the morphology of the town. Today, single-family houses, usually bungalows and two story buildings and some three or more storey apartment houses predominate the urban environment. Some of the residential area lack environment “play space” impairing air between their high rise development thus impairing air movement and generating urban movement heat and misdirected “ corridor flows”. It is no gainsaying that domestic pollution could from kitchen smoke, improper household cleaning and maintenance, clogged and unsightly drainage, stench from improper environment sanitation and improper collection and disposal of human and animal wastes and the perennial problem of improperly managed garbage dumps. Tree as shade plants serve as thermal moderators, plants generally are good absorbers of pollution and toxic materials in the air and in the soil, whether indoor or outdoor. These were abundant in Enugu before the development craze. Today hey are being consumed in the carve out syndrome ( leucaster and brown ,2007).
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study limited to Enugu urban, due to the number of neighbourhood in enugu urban. Four of the neighbourhoods chosen include Emene layout Ogbete Layout, ogui-new layout and Achara layout.
1.9 THE PLAN OF THE STUDY
The write up of this research is in five chapters. Chapter one deals with the introduction of the study and intended achievement of the study. This is donbe by the exposition of the statement of problem, the study area, the aims and objectives of the study, research question, the significance of the study, the scope of the study and the plan of the study.Chapter two deals with reviewing of available literatures related to the topic of research.
Chapter three deals with the research methodology on applied in carrying out the research. It reveals the types of data needed, source and method of data collection, sampled population, method of data processing and method of data analysis.
Chapter four deals with data presentation and analysis of findings.
Chapter five deals with recommendation and conclusion.
1.10 LITERATURE REVIEW
1.11 AIR POPULATION: CONCEPTS
Miller (2007) reported that air land, water and noise pollution started with the first man on earth. Since then pollution has been growing in extent and pungency. Pollution is only one of the ways in which man alters the natural world. It operates through changing the levels and sometimes the natures of the chemicals and physical factors on which the composition and productivity of living organism depends. According to Faith (2005). Air pollution is as old as history itself. Over the centuries some have increased in seventy, while other have diminished, but some discouraging new problem have emerged, due to the heavy over population and increased in technology and industrialization.
Stewart (2004) stated that without air of good quality there cannot be life and without air of good quality there cannot be a healthy life. Air pollution is an old problem that has this century consumed wild economic social significance. Exposure to pollutant such as particulate matter and ozone has been found to associate with increases in hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and mortality in many cities in Europe and other continents. Resent studies have also tried to quantify the health effects caused by ambient air pollution example within the “Global burden of disease” Projects of the World Health Organization (WHO) it has been estimated that world wide, close to 6.4 million years healthy life are lost due to long term exposure to ambient particulate matter ( Wark and Warner, 2007).
Breuer and Varmer (2005) reported that pollution of the environment is a man made problem, and can be solved by man. A simplest method of solving it would be to stop those activities that result in pollution. This method however cannot be applied since anthropogenic activities cannot be separated from air pollution, but man can reduce and change his activities such that pollution can be held below a critical threshold value so that the environment can take care of the pollutants without being endangered. According to Oboh 2004, pollution causes distress and problem upon man, animals and plant life. The economic consequence of this is that, pure or relatively pure air is no longer a free things , yet those who are responsible for pollution do not bear the cost of the pollution they created.
- MAJOR AIR POLLUTANTS
The major air pollutants according to pardon to Anderson (2007) can be classifies thus:
- sulphur oxides (SOs): they are produced when sulphur- containing fuels such as coal or oil areburnt. Factories where sulphur is used in the manufacturing process also produce them. Oxides of sulphur irritate the breathing passing and can damage lungs (canter, 2006) example is sulphur dioxide, which is a corrosive gas. It cannot be seen or smelled at low levels but can have a “rotten egg” smell at high levels
- Nitrogen oxides (NOx): Automobile and other engines produce these. They are emitted from the high temperature combustion. Nitrogen make up of about 78% of the air, oxygen 21%, normally these gases do not combine chemically in the air, but in engine that run at very high temperature. They combine to form gas called oxide of nitrogen, which are poisonous. Example is the nitrogen dioxide, which is a reddish- brown gas that comes from the burning of fossil. It has a strong smell at high levels (Jonathan, 2007)
- Photochemical oxidants: these are formed when oxides of nitrogen combine with other substances presents in automobile exhaust. The photochemical oxidants are the main ingredient of smog, which irritates the eye and breathing passages (Paul and Angeloc, 2007).
- Particulate matter: this is a solid or liquid matter is suspended in the air. To remain in the, particle usually must be less than 0. 1mm wide and can be small as 0.00005mm. Dust whether natural or produced by human activity is particulate. Another example is fly ash, which result from the burning of fuels (Jonathan, 2007).
- Ozone: This is a gas that can be found in two places. Near the ground ( the troposphere(, it is a major part of smog. The harmful ozone in the lower atmosphere should nor be confused with the protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) , which screen out harmful ultraviolet rays.
- Carbon monoxide: This is a gas that comes from the burning of fossil fuels mostly in cars. It cannot be seen or smelled.
- Hydrocarbon: these are organics solutions that enter the air by evaporating. The vaporize in to air. Hydrocarbons includes; gasoline paints and chemical products (Paul and Angeloc, 2007).
- Lead: A blue- grey metal that is very toxic and is number of forms and locations
- Toxic air pollutants: these are large number of chemical that are known or suspected to caner. some important pollutants in this category include arsenic, asbestos, benzene, and dioxin ( Jonathan, 2007)
- stratosphere ozone depletes: These are chemicals; they are chemical that can destroy the ozone in the stratosphere. These chemical include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, and other compound that include chlorine or bromine (Jonathan, 2007).
- Greenhouse gases: these are gases, gases that stay in the air for a long time and warm up the planet by trapping sunlight. This is called the “greenhouse effect” because the gases act like the glass in a greenhouse. Some of the important greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous (jonathan2007).
1.13 CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION
The major causes of air area as follows:
- Rapid urbanization: Morton (2005) said that an intangible and direct factor that contributes to air pollution is rapid urbanization and growth. Bates( 2006) reported that the adverse effect o urbanization population concentration in metropolitan areas includes air pollution from increase use of automobile, the problem from mass transport system, waste disposal and various health problems. In a particular environment, pollution is determines by the volume of wastes, which depends on the population of that area.
- Living habits: Collings (2005) suggested that the struggle against poverty is the general cause of air pollution. As real income increases, people consume and buy more things and disposed them quickly. It is therefore typical to find refuse dumps scattered around the street, market and open spaces also in drains, which became blockedand then produces offensive odour that pollutes the air. Martin and Sithole (2004) reported that it is therefore evident that unguided human activities (living habits) and he need to develop are directly responsible for air pollution.
- Transportation: this is one of the chief sources of the pollutants according to Jones (2005). It is important to know that the exhaust fumes from automobiles enter the air at street level while those from airplanes enter at higher levels. The introduction of gases in to the atmosphere helps in pollution the air.
- Industrials activities: most of the industrials activities poisonous gases in to the air through factory chimneys. Nuclear and electrical power plants for treating ores and the burning of fossils fuels are all associated with air pollution (Jones ,2005) however, the effects of air pollution according to volkmer and wises (2004) can be classified as thus:
- Effect on human health: pollutants can cause disease, including caner, lupus, immune disease, allergies, and asthma. Higher levels of background radiation have led to an increased incidence of cancer and mortality associated with worldwide. Toxic compounds, like mercury and lead, poison organ systems and can lead to brain damage and death. Adverse air quality can kill organism including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain and congestion. Contamination caused by pollution can have damaging effects in the brain and central nervous system (pardon and Anderson 2007).
- Effects on the environment: climate change on a global scale has been attributed to increased emissions of carbon (Co2), a greenhouse gas. A global average temperature rise of only 1oC could have serious implications. Possible consequences include melting of polar ice caps’ an increase in sea level; and increases in precipitation and serve weather events like hurricanes, tornadoes, heat, floods, and droughts indirect effects include increases in infectious disease, weather- related deaths, and food and water shortages. All these effects put a street on ecosystems and agriculture, and threaten our planet as a whole. Other atmospheric effects of air pollution include urban smog and reduced visibility, associated with ozone-forming nitrogen oxides and volatiles and organic compound emissions sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides combine with water in the atmosphere to cause acid rain, which is detrimental to forests and other vegetation, soil, lakes, and aquatic life. Acid rain also causes monuments and buildings to deteriorate.(Adinna and aetal,2007).
- Economic effect: he effects of air pollution on human healthand the environment have economic impacts. According to the health people 200 report, each year in the united states:
- The costs of human exposure to outdoor air pollutants range from $ 40 to $50 billion.
- An estimated 50,000 to 120,000 premature death are associated with exposure to air pollutants
- People with asthma experience more than 100 million days of restricted, activity, costs for asthma exceed $4 billion, and about 4,000 people in asthma.
- The Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) article, “Why is it Better to buy Green Electricity “? State that acid RIN causes $6 billion a year in damage to crops, forests, lakes, and buildings. The potential economic impact of global warming is estimated to be in the billions of dollars (Dix 2005)