Marketing Of Palm Produce In Awgu, Udi, And Nkanu LGA

Marketing Of Palm Produce In Awgu, Udi, And Nkanu Lga’s In Enugu State

ABSTRACT

          This study tried to find out and evaluate the marketing of palm produce in Awgu, Udi, and Nkanu LAG’S in Enugu State. The sample size used in the study was determined using Bourley’s formular. Personal interviews and questionnaires were used to obtain data from respondents. Secondary data was also sourced from textbooks. A total number of 70 questionnaires were distributed to both the consumers and staffs of oil palm produce. 50 were randomly selected individuals, while 38 respondents were returned out of which a total of 250 were used in the analysis. The researcher used chi-square statistical methods to test the hypothesis which were earlier formulated for the study. The result of the study showed that marketing activities are not properly coordinated and managed in the oil palm producers and some oil palm companies in Enugu State, not only that, the study also revealed consumers attitude or belief towards the production of oil production in Enugu State Nigeria. It was recommended that the relevant authority in the manufacturing of oil palm produce should work with great commitment and vigour towards effective management of marketing activities in those firms. This will lead to the attainment of the satisfaction of consumers need which is ultimate goal of marketing.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

The discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities in the country in the late 60’s and the consequent ‘oil Boom’ in the 70’s produced a most adversed effect on our agricultural sector. people abandon their farms for more lucrative alternatives, and became emergency traders, transporters, contractors, etc, leaving only old people on the farms. Palm oil as a sub-sector of the agricultural sector remains the most produce of the oil palm tree that are of relative importance include palm kernel, palm tree, palm leaves, and the palm trunk.

The economy of Nigeria transformed from being palm oil led in the 1955 to 1963 to being by petroleum oil from 1970 to the present day. Although, both sources of oil seem to have waned in their foreign exchange earnings ability, the importance of palm oil in the domestic economy to the industrial sector and the households cannot be over emphasized.

Aggregate production of palm oil has continued to grow from a record low of 320 thousand tones in 1967 to more than 700 thousand tones in 1980. All of these oil are used in the domestic economy with shortfall which is made up by importation. In 1981 alone, so thousand tons of palm oil was imported.

However, this shortfall in palm produce in this area of study Enugu-State-has been attributed to lack of organized marketing arrangements and production. Marketing of palm produce has not been adequately organized.

This situation appears to be aggravated by policy makers who have been emphasizing on palm production with little or no consideration to the marketing and distribution of these products.

The failure of supply of palm produce to keep pace with demand has generated a lot of arguments. While some emphasized production as being responsible, others emphasized inadequate supply and distribution problem. However the problem of shortages could be attributed to the production and marketing inefficiencies. It is therefore contended that efficient marketing of palm produce can indirectly increase production.

1.2     OIL PALM DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

Various agencies including states and the federal government are involved in the establishment of oil palm plantation in Nigeria. As at 1982, an estimated 154, 789 hectares of improved oil palm were established. (Table 1 below). The largest percentage of hectares were established under the pre – 1966 rehabilitation scheme and the post-1970 world Bank assisted smallholder management unit (SUM) programmes.

The lowest percent of hectares (1.42), on the other hand, were established by other agencies which include individuals, co-operatives and other private organizations. An important development not explicit in the table 1 below is that establishment of 21, 580 hectares of federally sponsored plantations and 35,538 hectares of states government sponsored smallholders units. Enugu –State rank third in the total hectares under palms.

(17 hac) with the effective presence of the World Bank assisted smallholder tree crop unit Enugu state senatorial zone, largely a poor agrarian community with a population of about 7.602 farm produce which is a palm oil and others like cocoyam, cassava, etc and other privately held estate   the state and other privately held estates.

These estates are usually provided with good access and farm roads collection of FFB to the production plant is facilitated by the availability of tractors- trailers. in contrast, the quantity and quality of rural roads serving smallholders farms are deficient. The existing roads are narrow, seasonal, earth-surfaced and far-between. As a result, the average distance from the farm to the nearest motorable road, farmers home and farmer’s market are large. These distances range from 1.5 to 7.5km in Imo State (Obiechina 1986). Although, vehicular transport is accessible to these rural communities, the winding and difficult train to some farms have necessitated the combined use of the head, bicycles and commercial motor vehicles to move FFB to processing and marketing centres.

1.3     DEFINITION OF PROBLEM

The problem of marketing of oil palm produce in Enugu State is diversified and covered every aspect of the commodity marketing scheme. These problems runs from the producer down to the consumer, sometimes replicating forms and these are mainly decline in the quantity of the products for both industrial and household consumption and it’s scarcity.

In this connection, the farmers would like to know the impact of distribution, pricing, processing and storage strategies being adopted in the marketing of the products Enugu State with a view to evaluating them and offer solutions where there are lapses.

The decline in palm produce could be as a result of inadequate storage facilities. Palm products are perishable goods, as a result if properly stored, it will get spoiled and the resultant effect will decline in supply.

The use of crude production technique yielded products of bad quality and contributed immensely to low-output.

It could also be continued reliance on existing wild grove palm which are low yielding and which because of their excessive heights, are difficult to harvest and as a result, are left virtually unexploited.

Relatively low extraction rate of the wild groves and very low extraction efficiency from traditional processing methods and the drudgery associated with transitional processing methods made the enterprise unattractive to young people, could be one of the reasons for the decline of palm products.

Another problem could be the government pricing policy starting from the days of the marketing boards up till now and has been a very bit disincentive. Only the recent open market prices for palm oil have acted as catalyst to the renewed interest in investment in oil palm development.

The decline could also be as a result of an increase in local consumption due to population explosion. The decline could also be contributed to many people leaving the production and processing sectors of the industry for other jobs especially as it is evident in the drift from rural to urban areas.

The decline in producers prices could equally be attributed to the complex nature of the channels of distribution of the palm produce. This could create artificial scarcity where the distributors would command higher prices before bringing them out for sale.

The above reasoned cannot be assured without carrying out a research on them. This study, therefore intends to research on these problems identified to find out what the situations are in Enugu State.

1.4     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The overall objectives of the study is to asses the efficiency of oil palm produce marketing in Enugu State with a view to identifying the major marketing constraints and make recommendation to remove or at least reduce them specifically, the investigation is designed to:

  1. Evaluate the marketing channels for the produce.
  2. Evaluate the means of transportation, storage and processing method employed by producers.
  3. Evaluate the pricing strategies of the produce used by the producers in the areas of study.
  4. Make recommendations as to how to improve the marketing situations of the oil palm produce in the area of study and the country as a whole.

1.5     HYPOTHESIS

  1. Null: The distribution channels are not adequate.

Alternate: The distribution channels are adequate

  1. The processing and storage facilities are crude and in adequate.

Alternate: The processing and storage facilities are not crude inadequate.

1.6     NEED AND JUSTIFICATION STUDY  

Palm oil and palm kernel were contributing substantially in the past to the growth of Nigeria export economy. At present, however, this contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen drastically to an extent that local agro-based industries are now importing palm oil.

The study, therefore has promoted by this low level of performable of this sub-sectors of our economy.

This study will investigate the farmers attitudes to oil palm production and marketing. The problems of distribution pricing, processing and storage are evaluated. It will also identify some constraints militating against the efficient marketing of the palm produce by the farmers and make suggestions on the ways of improving the situation such a study would provide a basis for evaluating a modern milling technique.

The problems of distribution pricing storage will also be evaluated in the light of the present economic situation in the area of study in particular and the country in general.

Price represents in the quantity of resources that must be given up in order to enjoy a particular product or service if the pricing is adequate with the producers and the consumers will benefit from it.

In the same way, if the channels of distribution are properly planned and constituted the consumers will get the goods at the right place and at the right time. This makes it cost effective, both to the producers and to the consumers.

Another area of importance in the storage and processing facilities. If these are note adequate, there will be high wastage and high waste, there will be high wastage and high wastage and decline in production.

It should however be noted that all there problem of marketing functions don’t work on isolation. They combine to reduce the quantity of palm produce offered in the market for sale proper evaluation of these factors would enable one know evaluation of those factors would enable one know areas which need an urgent attention.

Finally, this study will also be very useful to those desiring to know the economic importance of palm produce for domestic and industrial uses and in the export market. Thus, it is hoped that the successful completion of the study would bring this part of the country into the general trend of academic inquiries.

1.7     SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

This is a state-wide study conducted in Enugu-State which is the coal city state and which also means top of the hill, the Nigerian institute for oil palm research (Nifor).

Nifor has an oil palm mill an installed capacity of 6 tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) per hour.. at plantation level, there are the 9 tonnes per hour unilever mill at owan estate, the 2.5 tonnes per hour De wecker mill at Aden plantation and the stock Hydraulic presses at Okhuo oil palm estates. Again, is the 20 tonnes per hour mill at the plantation in Nsukka, the 1.5 tonnes per hour VDK mill at Okomu and a mill of similar capacity at Jesse in Fthiope Local Government Area.

Four of the twenty local government areas in the state were purposely sampled to represented the central, eastern and northern sections of the state. The geographical spread of the study area covers about 70% of the commercial oil palm producing belt in the state.

However, the value of information lost because of the concentration on four local government in the state alone is not worth the trouble, time and money that would be involved in getting it outside when the four local governments are a good approximation of the total market.

 

 

Problems Of Air Pollution In Enugu Urban Area

Problems Of Air Pollution In Enugu Urban Area, A Case Study Of Enugu Urban

ABSTRACT

Years back, the attention given to air pollution was too low dispute its contribution to most of the ill health that the populace suffer from one space to another through air.  In this research work, the effects of air pollution as it effects the populace that are residing in the study area was considered. The approach was based on the data collected from the questionnaire observation and interviews in the chosen zones. From analysis, result shown in the table 4. 7c proved that places of high human and this was ascertained when the calculated valuex2 of 11. 63 is greater than the critical value of 9.49. In conclusion it is clear in the work the air pollution has a serious effects in the more populated zones.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION / LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1.1  BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Air population is defined by the new encyclopedia Britanica (1999) as the change in biological condition in the environment, which is harmful and effect  the quality of human life, including effect on  other animals and plants, industries, culture and aesthetic assets. Although air pollution is attributed generally to material substances, like gases, particulate matters, solid wastes paper glass and non-material substance like excess of noise and as well as water, land and air. Therefore air pollution then occur where people and their activities are contracted.  Air pollution then, is the case when the air is considered polluted through the alterations in its composition and condition, either directly or indirectly as a result of the activities of man. So that it becomes less suitable for some or all of the uses fir which it would have been in its natural states. Therefore air pollution is increasingly becoming a problem in Enugu urban.

Man is the main polluted in enugu urban. The uses up energy directly from natural resource like coal , to manufacturing and production, thereby cresting problems of disposal or  waste material from the manufactured goods. Cities have grown in an unmonitored manner, which then led to problems of environmental pollution. The environmental pollution of big cities can be related to the environmental deterioration of Enugu urban. This is why a clean up campaign tagged “Operation keeps Enugu Clean” was declared, the need for preservation and protection of Enugu, also brought about the introduction of an environmental protection body called Enugu state environmental protection agency, which is known as Enugu state weast management agency (ESWAMA)

1.1     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          Air pollution has been a series problem facing urban now; it has hazardous effect on the environment.  It destroys the environment, water and soil, thus the effect of pollution on any of the basic biological necessities of man, are normally disastrous. Illness and   death of man can be easily associated with a polluted air. Air pollution are known to produce eye and respiratory irritation in human, as well as animals. Generally the health and physical well being of all individual who breathe polluted air is affected, worse still man is losing the taste of good air. Water pollution problems are death to both man the aquatic life, it increase water born disease, changes the colour and salinity of the water and as well make way for scarcity of available pollution water through pollution of the sources.

Noise pollution can affect a person psychological and physical well –being, people who are exposed to loud noises of long duration have an increase in blood pressure and mental disorderliness. Loud noises pf long duration has increase in blood pressure, and mental disorderliness.

Loud pollution leads to reduction in the fertility of the soil and conversely reduce productivity, it as well make way for other sources of pollution like of under ground water.  The health implication of pollution cannot be over stressed; the hazards caused by pollutant on the inhabitants of any area can be devastating.

  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The aim and objective of the study is to enhance and develop important measures to the pollution in the environment which if considered and applied will lead to increased and better standard of living potentials in the environment this can be achieved through the following objectives.

  1. To determine the general awareness of the public on air pollution
  2. Identify major in the study area
  3. Identify the sources of air pollution
  4. Identify the effect of air pollution on inhabitants

1.3     RESEARCH QUESTION

          In order to carry out the research effectively the

Following questions are asked.

  1. What is the level of awareness of air pollution?
  2. What are the sources of air pollution?
  3. What is the health effect of air pollution?
  4. What measures are put in place to reduce air pollution?
  5. How effective are the measures that are put in place

1.4              HYPOTHESIS

  1. HI: There is a strong relationship between wind speed and directed and air pollution.
  2. H0: there is a week relationship between speed and directed and air pollutants.

iii. Hi: there is a strong relationship between temperature variation and the rate of air pollutants.

  1. Ho: there is a weak relationship between temperature variation and the rate of air pollutants.
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of the study is to make the public understand fully what air pollution is, the effect it can have on their various activities. It also to enable them participate with government agencies and authorities in finding control measures for air pollution. The problem of air pollution is a global concern with rapid urbanization and industrialization. The air is being polluted by the activities of man. This leads to unhealthy and unsafe environmrnt to live in and something has to be done to reduce the level of air pollution in order to reduce the hazards associated with it.

  • LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research on the problem of air pollution in Enugu a area is of significance because of threat, it poses on the lives of the people of Enugu urban area. The problem of air pollution helps to make the public understand fully, what air pollution is and the effect it can have on their various activities. It also enables the public to participate with government agencies and authorities in finding control measure for air pollution. Those that will benefit from this research include government authorities like ENSWAMA, which is responsible for keeping the environment clean. The health sector will also find this research useful because some air pollutants are health hazards. Agriculturists also are not left out as some air pollutants affect the growth and productivity of crops and livestock. This research will be immense benefit to environmentalist and some NGO’s carrying out research on air pollution.

The researches encounter some problems during this research study. This problem causes some limitation to the effectiveness of this research. There were limited resources to carryout all that require to be done because of the dearth of book in our libraries, literature, materials etc. Another problem was the shortness of the time allocated for this project.

  • THE STUDY AREA

Enugu urban lat 6:27N 70 27 1/E, the capital of Enugu State and locate at the foot of UDI escarpment Enugu urban /or the state covers the government residential. Area New Heaven and Independence Layout, Uwani /Achare Layout/Maryland to the south and Ogbete /Iva Valley to the west. Enugu Urban environment includes the central business district (cbd), Emene Industrial Layout, the high-density residential Area Of Abapka  Nike and its neighbourhood. Enugu has a rapid population growth, which in turn affects the morphology of the town. Today, single-family houses, usually bungalows and two story buildings and some three or more storey apartment houses predominate the urban environment. Some of the residential area lack environment “play space” impairing air  between their high rise development thus impairing air movement and generating urban movement heat  and misdirected “ corridor flows”. It is no gainsaying that domestic pollution could from kitchen smoke, improper household cleaning and maintenance, clogged and unsightly drainage, stench from improper environment sanitation and improper collection and disposal of human and animal wastes and the perennial problem of improperly managed garbage dumps. Tree as shade plants serve as thermal moderators, plants generally are good absorbers of pollution and toxic materials in the air and in the soil, whether indoor or outdoor. These were abundant in Enugu before the development craze. Today hey are being consumed in the carve out syndrome ( leucaster and brown ,2007).

1.8     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study limited to Enugu urban, due to the number of neighbourhood in enugu urban. Four of the neighbourhoods chosen include Emene layout Ogbete Layout, ogui-new layout and Achara layout.

1.9  THE PLAN OF THE STUDY

The write up of this research is in five chapters. Chapter one deals with the introduction of the study and intended achievement of the study. This is donbe by the exposition of the statement of problem, the study area, the aims and objectives of the study, research question, the significance of the study, the scope of the study and the plan of the study.Chapter two deals with reviewing of available literatures related to the topic of research.

Chapter three deals with the research methodology on applied in carrying out the research. It reveals the types of data needed, source and method of data collection, sampled population, method of data processing and method of data analysis.

Chapter four deals with data presentation and analysis of findings.

Chapter five deals with recommendation and conclusion.

1.10  LITERATURE REVIEW

1.11  AIR POPULATION: CONCEPTS

Miller (2007) reported that air land, water and noise pollution started with the first man on earth. Since then pollution has been growing in extent and pungency. Pollution is only one of the ways in which man alters the natural world. It operates through changing the levels and sometimes the natures of the chemicals and physical factors on which the composition and productivity of living organism depends. According to Faith (2005). Air pollution is as old as history itself. Over the centuries some have increased in seventy, while other have diminished, but some discouraging new problem have emerged, due to the heavy over population and increased in technology and industrialization.

Stewart (2004) stated that without air of good quality there cannot be life and without air of good quality there cannot be a healthy life. Air pollution is an old problem that has this century consumed wild economic social significance. Exposure to pollutant such as particulate matter and ozone has been found to associate with increases in hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and mortality in many cities in Europe and other continents. Resent studies have also tried to quantify the health effects caused by ambient air pollution example within the “Global burden of disease” Projects of the World Health Organization (WHO) it has been estimated that world wide, close to 6.4 million years healthy life are lost due to long term exposure to ambient particulate matter ( Wark and Warner, 2007).

Breuer and Varmer (2005) reported that pollution of the environment is a man made problem, and can be solved by man. A simplest method of solving it would be to stop those activities that result in pollution. This method however cannot be applied since anthropogenic activities cannot be separated from air pollution, but man can reduce and change his activities such that pollution can be held below a critical threshold value so that the environment can take care of the pollutants without being endangered. According to Oboh 2004, pollution causes distress and problem upon man, animals and plant life. The economic consequence of this is that, pure or relatively pure air is no longer a free things , yet those who are responsible for pollution do not bear the cost of the pollution they created.

  • MAJOR AIR POLLUTANTS

The major air pollutants according to pardon to Anderson       (2007) can be classifies thus:

  • sulphur oxides (SOs): they are produced when sulphur- containing fuels such as coal or oil areburnt.  Factories where sulphur is used in the manufacturing process also produce them. Oxides of sulphur irritate the breathing passing and can damage lungs (canter, 2006) example is sulphur dioxide, which is a corrosive gas. It cannot be seen or smelled at low levels but can have a “rotten egg” smell at high levels
  • Nitrogen oxides (NOx): Automobile and other engines produce these. They are emitted from the high temperature combustion. Nitrogen make up of about 78% of the air, oxygen 21%, normally these gases do not combine chemically in the air, but in engine that run at very high temperature. They combine to form gas called oxide of nitrogen, which are poisonous. Example is the nitrogen dioxide, which is a reddish- brown gas that comes from the burning of fossil. It has a strong smell at high levels (Jonathan, 2007)
  • Photochemical oxidants: these are formed when oxides of nitrogen combine with other substances presents in automobile exhaust. The photochemical oxidants are the main ingredient of smog, which irritates the eye and breathing passages (Paul and Angeloc, 2007).
  • Particulate matter: this is a solid or liquid matter is suspended in the air. To remain in the, particle usually must be less than 0. 1mm wide and can be small as 0.00005mm. Dust whether natural or produced by human activity is particulate. Another example is fly ash, which result from the burning of fuels (Jonathan, 2007).
  • Ozone: This is a gas that can be found in two places. Near the ground ( the troposphere(, it is a major part of smog. The harmful ozone in the lower atmosphere should nor be confused with the protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) , which screen out harmful ultraviolet rays.
  • Carbon monoxide: This is a gas that comes from the burning of fossil fuels mostly in cars. It cannot be seen or smelled.
  • Hydrocarbon: these are organics solutions that enter the air by evaporating. The vaporize in to air. Hydrocarbons includes; gasoline paints and chemical products (Paul and Angeloc, 2007).
  • Lead: A blue- grey metal that is very toxic and is number of forms and locations
  • Toxic air pollutants: these are large number of chemical that are known or suspected to caner. some important pollutants in this category include arsenic, asbestos, benzene, and dioxin ( Jonathan, 2007)
  • stratosphere ozone depletes: These are chemicals; they are chemical that can destroy the ozone in the stratosphere. These chemical include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, and other compound that include chlorine or bromine (Jonathan, 2007).
  • Greenhouse gases: these are gases, gases that stay in the air for a long time and warm up the planet by trapping sunlight. This is called the “greenhouse effect” because the gases act like the glass in a greenhouse. Some of the important greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous (jonathan2007).

1.13        CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION

The major causes of air area as follows:

  • Rapid urbanization: Morton (2005) said that an intangible and direct factor that contributes to air pollution is rapid urbanization and growth. Bates( 2006) reported that the adverse effect o urbanization population concentration in metropolitan areas includes air pollution from increase use of automobile, the problem from mass transport system, waste disposal and various health problems. In a particular environment, pollution is determines by the volume of wastes, which depends on the population of that area.
  • Living habits: Collings (2005) suggested that the struggle against poverty is the general cause of air pollution. As real income increases, people consume and buy more things and disposed them quickly. It is therefore typical to find refuse dumps scattered around the street, market and open spaces also in drains, which became blockedand then produces offensive odour that pollutes the air. Martin and Sithole (2004) reported that it is therefore evident that unguided human activities (living habits) and he need to develop are directly responsible for air pollution.
  • Transportation: this is one of the chief sources of the pollutants according to Jones (2005). It is important to know that the exhaust fumes from automobiles enter the air at street level while those from airplanes enter at higher levels. The introduction of gases in to the atmosphere helps in pollution the air.
  • Industrials activities: most of the industrials activities poisonous gases in to the air through factory chimneys. Nuclear and electrical power plants for treating ores and the burning of fossils fuels are all associated with air pollution (Jones ,2005) however, the effects of air  pollution according to volkmer and wises (2004) can be classified as thus:
    • Effect on human health: pollutants can cause disease, including caner, lupus, immune disease, allergies, and asthma. Higher levels of background radiation have led to an increased incidence of cancer and mortality associated with worldwide. Toxic compounds, like mercury and lead, poison organ systems and can lead to brain damage and death. Adverse air quality can kill organism including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain and congestion. Contamination caused by pollution can have damaging effects in the brain and central nervous system (pardon and Anderson 2007).
    • Effects on the environment: climate change on a global scale has been attributed to increased emissions of carbon (Co2), a greenhouse gas. A global average temperature rise of only 1oC could have serious implications. Possible consequences include melting of polar ice caps’ an increase in sea level; and increases in precipitation and serve weather events like hurricanes, tornadoes, heat, floods, and droughts indirect effects include increases in infectious disease, weather- related deaths, and food and water shortages. All these effects put a street on ecosystems and agriculture, and threaten our planet as a whole. Other atmospheric effects of air pollution include urban smog and reduced visibility, associated with ozone-forming nitrogen oxides and volatiles and organic compound emissions sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides combine with water in the atmosphere to cause acid rain, which is detrimental to forests and other vegetation, soil, lakes, and aquatic life. Acid rain also causes monuments and buildings to deteriorate.(Adinna and aetal,2007).
    • Economic effect: he effects of air pollution on human healthand the environment have economic impacts. According to the health people 200 report, each year in the united states:
  • The costs of human exposure to outdoor air pollutants range from $ 40 to $50 billion.
  • An estimated 50,000 to 120,000 premature death are associated with exposure to air pollutants
  • People with asthma experience more than 100 million days of restricted, activity, costs for asthma exceed $4 billion, and about 4,000 people in asthma.
  • The Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) article, “Why is it Better to buy Green Electricity “?  State that acid RIN causes $6 billion a year in damage to crops, forests, lakes, and buildings. The potential economic  impact of global warming is estimated to be in the billions of dollars (Dix 2005)