Development Of Public Library In Nigeria

Development Of Public Library In Nigeria  

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The history of libraries began with the first effort to organize collections of documents. Topics of interest include accessibility of the collection, acquisition of materials, management and finding tools, the book trade the influence of the physical properties of the different writing materials, language distribution, role in education, rates of literacy, budgets, staffing, libraries for specially targeted audiences, architectural merit, patterns of usage and the role of libraries in a nations cultural heritage and the role of government, church or private sponsorship. Since the 1960s issues of computerization and digitalization come to the fore. Continue reading Development Of Public Library In Nigeria

Entrepreneurship Skills And Economic Development Of Anambra State

Entrepreneurship Skills And Economic Development Of Anambra State (A Study Of Nnewi North Lga) 2010-2015

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Global dynamics have dramatically changed in the last few decades. Many countries in South East Asia and Latin America have become dominant in the exports of manufactured goods and are increasingly becoming key players in global economic environment. Unfortunately there exists a universal pessimism about Africa’s economic growth prospect. Botswana and South Africa remain exceptions simply because of their well calculated policies which direct revenue from diamond exports towards developing infrastructure and human capital. Nigeria is the Africa’s most populous country and its fourth largest economy. Ironically, even with the massive oil revenue accrued over the years, the country is categorized among the poorest in the world.

The problems of the Nigerian economy is structured in nature. The vast population of the country is made up small scale farmers and petty traders. Over time, the performance of the industrial sectors which is expected to create substantial job opportunities and serves as a link to primary sector has not been impressive. Due to low domestic productive capacity living conditions deteriorate. Poverty and unemployment increased while human capital and participation in international trade remain very low. This calls for the need to rethink the nations development strategy by looking inward to create new businesses and develop local talents.

Since the strength of an economy is measured by its physical and human resource endowment and how productively these resources are developed to produces goods and services, task of promoting entrepreneurship at all levels becomes paramount. This is especially so in a country where the unemployed people tend to rely on government and paid jobs rather than on their initiatives.

Today, large organizations have also recognized the need to promote entrepreneurship mind-set in order to explore new opportunities and to avoid complacency. This trend is encouraged by feet that corporate leader who would approach problems creatively and entrepreneurial and also strives on the management of change.

The purpose of this paper is to examine critical factors affecting the survival and growth of new business ventures in Nigeria using six states as reference points. Farmers and small business owners were asked about the activities of various government and institutional financing organs at Bungudu, Gwarzo, Isa, Nsukka, Isiakpo, Ekwisigo areas of Zamfara, Kano, Sokoto, Enugu, Rivers and Anambra States respectively. The goal is to provide a flat form for harmonized various enterprise policies and programmes which would hopefully make entrepreneurship development in the country more focused and result oriented. It is also the objective of this paper to challenges existing business as usual approach to business by individuals and organizational leadership. Perhaps this would enable them stretch their human creative faculties t innovate and grow new business ventures essential for achieving sustainable economic development. Beside utilizing contemporary literature, the paper draws insights South Asia experiences.

Anambra State us a state in South Eastern Nigeria. Its name is an anglicized capital and the seat of government is Awka, Onitsha and Nnewi are the biggest commercial and industrial cities, respectively.

The state’s theme is “Light of the Nation”. Boundaries are formed by Delta state to the west, Imo State and Rivers State of the South, Enugu State to the east and Kogi State to the North. The origin of the name is derived from the Anambra River (Omambala) which is a tributary of the famous River Niger.

The indigenous ethnic group in Anambra State are the Igbo (98% of population) and a small population of Igala (2% of the population) who live mainly in the North Western part of the state (3).

Anambnra is the eighth most populated state in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State. The stretch of more than 45km between Oba and Amorke contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated villages and small towns giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500 – 2,000 persons per square kilometer.

  • Statement of the problem

International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that 300million young people are unemployed or underemployed and 80% of those youth live in developing or transition economics. Although the ILO estimates that 20% of the young unemployed have the potential to become entrepreneurs, less than 5% actually do (Huang, et al; 2010). Programs, such as the ILO’s Youth Business International Program and you win in Nigeria target youth. There seems some levels of agreement that entrepreneurial attribute is four (personality, skills, motivation and attitude) dimensional (Lumpkin and Edrogo, 2004). However, there seem no evidence as to the order of importance and integration of the above in the entrepreneurship development process for it to lead sustainable economic transformation and developments. This may have affected success levels of entrepreneurship development programmes especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. This paper is motivated by the need to empirically as critical success factors of entrepreneurship development.

For decades, one of the principle state and local economic development tools has been tax incentives. Every state offers incentives in one form or another to retain business and attract businesses from other states. According to one survey, 95 percent of U.S municipalities also use such incentives.

Some policy markers have expressed a desire to end this practice but fell stuck in an arms race. They pear they cannot unilaterally forgo incentives because others use them, so they create ever-increasing incentive packages in an effort to compete. Although some incentives may be economically justified in terms of jobs and productivity in the midst of an arms race it’s difficult to tell what is and is not effective in creating jobs.

One thing that is known is that this practice costs taxpayers billions of dollars each year. Estimates put the annual cost near 870 billion. Moreover, incentives targeting existing companies miss the economy’s real engine of job erection new and young businesses, which create nearly all net jobs in the united states, a fact that also holds true at this state and city levels.

Policymaker have heard those arguments before, but need ideas, not criticism. The Kamffman foundation hosted a conference of state legislations, mayors, researchers, and leading thinkers to discuss two themes related to incentives.

Firstly, how can incentive programs be improved to better promote economic growth? Secondly: what alternative strategies exist for promoting economic development through entrepreneurship?

  • Research Questions

In the course of this research, the following questions were generated for analysis.

  1. To what extent does entrepreneurship contribute to economic development of Anambra State?
  2. To what extent does entrepreneurship impact on employment creation in Anambra State?
  3. To what extent does entrepreneurship contribute to increased standard of living?
    • Purpose of the study

The general objective is to develop an entrepreneurship development model that ensures a progressive learning experience, through which beneficiaries are motivated to take socially and environmentally responsive entrepreneurial actions aimed at addressing economic problems of employment and income inequalities in their societies. Hence, the specific objectives include:-

  • To ascertain the role of entrepreneurship in economic development of Anambra State.
  • To find out the role of entrepreneurship in creation of employment.
  • To find out the role of entrepreneurship towards increased standard of living in Anambra State.
    • Significance of the study

Against this backdrop of this G.D.P observed in the Anambra State and the consequences on development prospects. The major significances of this work:

  • It is expected that the study will serve as literature review to other students.
  • Most importantly, it is envisaged that it should be useful to public policy analysts, particularly policy makers etc.
  • It will be of immense help to future researchers on the role of entrepreneurship in socio-economic development of the state.
    • Scope of the study

This research work covers a comprehensive analysis of the role of entrepreneurship in economic development of Anambra state. The research will also provide a brief history of origin of entrepreneurship in Nigeria. As the researcher limits its work to Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State.

  • Limitation of the study

This work is by no means exhaustive but useful attempts to penetrate the core of the issue have been made. The researcher encountered many difficulties in the process of collecting data for his research. These problems invariably formed the basis for limitation of the study.

Firstly: time constraint affected a comprehension review of related literature on the subject after the study. Gathering of materials textbooks, journals etc for the review of literature were time consuming. The researcher being a student has other courses to cover and this had to apportion the time to meet the damage of other courses.

Secondly; the proximity of related literature materials also posed a problem. The researcher was impeded by necessary textbooks, magazine and journals for offered their downside to the study, human beings have never been easy to deal with especially when human behaviours are unpredictable. Some data and questionnaires were bluntly refused by the respondents. Finally, the research was based on the title money they could save. All these limitations, limited the validity of the finding and condition, the research would have been more retained without these constraints.

  • Definition of terms

ENTREPRENEURSHIP: This has been defined as the willingness and ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities, establish and run an enterprise successfully.

ECONOMIC: Economic is a science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.

DEVELOPMENT: Development is a process of societal advancement, where improvement in the well being of people are generated through strong partnership between all sectors, corporate bodies and other groups in the society.

  • Organization of the study

The study was organized into five chapters, one introduced the study by giving the background information on the research problem, objectives, the scope and limitation of the study. Chapter two dealt with the review of relevant literature and the theoretical framework of farmers cooperative society. Chapter three discussed the research methodology adopted for the study and relevant justifications. Chapter four presented the finding on the farmers cooperative society and rural economic development. Chapter five also presented the conclusions drawn from the research finding and recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.0           LITERATURE REVIEW

                Although there is a vast literature on economic development, there is still no clarity as to its real meaning. This notwithstanding, it is widely agreed that development must be seeing as the general improvement in living conditions of people. It is not merely about the provision of basic necessities such as food, clothing and shelter, but also health, improvement of human capital and redistribution of wealth.

Nayyer, (2003) argues that conventional economic growth theory tends to emphasize increases in per capital income as a measure for development ignoring other essential indicators of development such as reduction in poverty, inequality and employment as well as improvement in quality of life.

Easterly, (1999) and Bartoli, (2000) argue that growth must always be associated with social and institutional progress. It must assume a human dimension which encompasses the enhancement of material well being, health, education and dignity of life. Nabunde, (2002) and Charper (2003) also claims that the most effective means of improving economics performance in poor countries is through industrialization and this cannot be possible without significant rise in the level of literacy and skills, investments and saving rate which would stimulate entrepreneurship and production. Hence, fostering growth require supporting investments and accumulation of human capital.

Although the world has recorded unprecedented economic progress in the last 50years especially in terms of growth in world’s output, capital accumulation and technological advancement, the progress achieved has been uneven between and within industrialized and non-industrialized nations. It is on this basis the advocates of this endogenous growth theory insist that government policy is fundamental in the process of influencing factors determining the long term rate of growth. Soro’s, (2000) observes that government has a unique role in fastering development since the conventional market mechanism are inadequate to cater for the needs and aspirations of the late comers that are essentially poor countries. Development crisis which is the generalized incapacity of an economy to generate the necessary environmental conditions for sustained improvement in the standard of living would persist unless effective intervention mechanisms are put in place (Stein, 2003). In this respect, we could argue that it is the responsibility of the governments to provide an integrated national policy that would faster this development of entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Achieving this task is essential for increased productivity, job creation, and improvement in living condition.

2.1           Entrepreneurship Development

                In today’s world where technological change, liberalization, outsourcing, and restructuring rule, the subject of entrepreneurship has gained greater interest. The discussions centered on what actually contribute entrepreneurship and how far it extends. The term entrepreneurship is derived from the French word entreprendre to undertake. This suggests that entrepreneurship is the process of undertaking activities concerned with identifying and exploiting business opportunities while assuming it’s associated risks. Entrepreneurship is about a kind of behavior that includes initiative taking, reorganizing economic activities and the acceptance of it’s risks (Shapero, 1975) it is important to note that entrepreneurial activities are universal and ca therefore be promoted even in societies that manifest low entrepreneurship activities.

Small enterprises in particular are central in achieving sustainable growth. They constitute about 90% of the business population in North America and they accounted for the most new jobs in the country (Kuratko and Hodyelts, 1998). Entrepreneurship involves taking chances, but new businesses do not emerge by accident (Eyelhoff, 2005). They are usually founded as a result of motivated entrepreneurship gaining access to resources and finding niches in opportunity structures. Hence, entrepreneurship could be seen as the process of identifying and exploiting unique business opportunities that stretch the creative capacities of both private and public organizations. Sue and Dan, (2000) argues that entrepreneurship is influenced by genetic power, family background and economic environment. Since economic environment could support or suppress entrepreneurship, governments world over undertake to develop means economic policies that focus mainly on providing access to resources and support services to individuals and organizations that display flair for expending their business horizons. Poverty among people is usually caused by inadequate income due to shrinking job opportunities as well as high businesses tend to add jobs faster than big companies because they are highly adaptable, innovative and responsive to new business and market challenges (Frese and Rarch, 2005). Thus, supporting entrepreneurs becomes a critical policy issue especially since those new businesses that do survive tend to expand employment and growth of the nations economy. The important question to be asked is why too few young businesses grow in meaningful ways? Bruno et al (1987) maintain that there are three categories of reason for high business failures; product/market problems, financial, difficulties and managerial problems.

This suggests that the responsibility for creating and growing new businesses does not rest entirely on government. Individuals and organizations are required to analyze key success factors in business environment and take personal responsibility for survival and growth of their own ventures. On its part, government is expected to provide adequate infrastructure and friendly policy guidelines.

2.1.2 Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Economic Development

The association of entrepreneurship and economic development of nations has long been recognized by economists of the past such as Jean Baptiste (1803) and Joseph Schumpter (1934): Small firms tend to employ more labour per unit of capital and require less per capital unit of output than do large one (Kuratko and Hodgetts, 1998). Thus, the creation of small businesses and growing the existing one’s is considered to be the fastest way to achieve economic growth. conventionally, ideas about how businesses ideas emerge in society have assumed that the process starts and ends with the individuals character traits (Kilby, 1988). This suggests that an entrepreneurship character is in-born. However, many argues that entrepreneurship, behavior could be stimulated through policy intervention (Chelland and Klinter, 1969). This is the reason why entrepreneurship in increasingly promoted in less developed countries.

There is probably no regime in Nigeria which at one time or another has to emphasized the development of small enterprises. For examples, the need for encouraging increased productivity and self-employment has been recognized since 1970s with formulation of the small scale enterprises promotion policy. Until now, government pronouncement on promoting small enterprises are not always translated into serious policy statements backed by effective implementation mechanisms. In fact, most of the programmes, introduced to assist small enterprises only reached a small portion of the total of small business population. In actual sense, policy makers were more concerned with the establishment of few large enterprises than developing small ones. This was what partly informed the import substitution industry (ISI) strategy of the late 1970s where huge sum of money was spent on unsustainable mammoth companies. For example, a number of automobile assembly, plants were established in various part of the country, many such as Fiat in Kano and Stoyre in Bauchi States have collapsed. Again, government is unable to improve infrastructure, security and general state of the economy which all have devastating effect on small business.

Of course, the inability of business owners to change ineffective traditional management practices and adopt innovative reforms also contribute significantly to their misfortune.

2.1.3   Problems of Small Enterprises in Nigeria            

                There are a number of problems limiting the growth of small and medium size businesses in Nigeria. Our survey reveals that most of the problems exist because of poor policy guidelines while others are attributed to the lack of imagination and expertise by the existing and potential entrepreneurs. Specifically, the problems border the neglect of new business opportunities poor infrastructure and insecurity, lack of government support, neglect difficulties faced by youth, problem of

Entrepreneurship Skills And Economic Development Of Anambra State

Population Census And National Development In Nigeria

Population Census And National Development In Nigeria: A Study Of The 2006 Population Census In Anambra State.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Census in Nigeria is nothing to write home about, from colonial era to 2006 various governments and agencies have tried their best to prefer solution to the problems of census on Nigeria without success factors responsible range  from collection of data, illiteracy and poor accessibility to remote area, inadequate professional expertise etc. It has failed due tot out environment that is controlled by corruption. Since census figure is used as a basis for parliamentary Continue reading Population Census And National Development In Nigeria

Loan Administration To Agricultural Co-Operative Societies

Loan Administration To Agricultural Co-Operative Societies By Nigeria Agricultural Co-Operative And Rural Development Bank In Enugu.

                            ABSTRACT

This research project is a very crucial study on the analysis of loan administration to agricultural co-operative society by Nigerian agricultural co-operative and rural development bank. The study is motivated by the necessity to establish the extent of agricultural co-operatives.

To solve the research problem, primary and secondary data was collected. The data were questionnaire and oral interview.  The respondents comprised of personnel from the bank. In organizing and presenting data collected, tables, frequencies and percentages were used. Data analysis and interpretation gives the following findings.

–           Criteria for granting loan to co-operative is that they should have an account holder have viable and bankable project and should be credit worthy.

–           Collateral securities do no pose much problem to give facility to farmer.

–           Insurance cover is necessary to cover some degree of risk involved in co-operative failure.

–           The level of response towards loan facilities is very satisfactory.

–           Loan management by co-operatives are very satisfactory.

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that banks should constitute a feasible alternative for providing financial assistance to support all effort for further development of co-operative sector. Banks should develop their farmers by allowing agricultural loan to cover all stages of agricultural production, consultation of agricultural specialist by farmer if need be lending should be basically for agricultural activities.

The conclusion of the study is the role NACRDB has played to enhance agricultural sector in Enugu and Nigeria in general. It has proved to be an important channel in providing financial services particularly credit to small farmers.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

Banks are financial house with the authority to guide groups and individuals who could be having monetary transaction to do. The provision of sound financial regulations that make for economic well being is very essential and the assistance of financial house in building up a safe terrain of monetary reserves is very important.  The well directed influence of vital banks on the larger society, as a whole is always something to admire every time. The need to have economic group well tested and approved of with the education of members of the society in forming a financial variable social ground belong in the part to the intelligent services rendered by banks.

In agricultural cooperation societies where individuals who hold agricultural stock could amount to a greater gain to the advancement of their individual well being and collective aspiration. Government has whole lot of work load to carryout financially or otherwise and so has not much moment to supervise minor economic units. She has to assign a duty to her agencies, these agencies as the dog in the wheal of the success of such co-operative societies and of the same time supply the necessary materials for the improvement and standard procedure. Special agro-allied banks have been set up under the auspices of the Apex bank to grant material aid to agro-stock holders. Example- Commercial Bank Limited Nigeria-agricultural co-operative and rural development bank.

These financial institutions have the authority to deal on multiple problems traumatizing agriculture. The bank of agriculture is becoming so highly modernized so that it will take a lot of money to produce food and cash crops in much profitable abundance. If it is with these in mind that government has arranged with her many agencies to bring some relief to aspiring agro stockholders.

Banks in any nation have the keynote to play on unfolding the financial success in the economy.

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Agricultural co-operative society is a venture by some farmers who hold agricultural stock and are seeking to uplift their collective and individual agricultural standards. These standard range from planting tag techniques to seed procuring and from financial subsidization to produce display in proper places. Agricultural co-operatives provide useful services where none exist especially one that would be uneconomic for individual ownership. To induce excessive cost of middlemen help farmers get a fair share of national income, direct agriculture towards the goals of national economic planning and generally to  improve the economic and social conditions of rural people. They seek for favourable trends such as loan, scheme, banking services and general market safety regulations. Ignorance of new method, benefits and possible support from responsible agencies have killed an idea to turn agriculture around for the better. Bank being organized financial units that can monitor research, cash flow and general economic trends happen to be a greater case to deal with farmers.

The ideal relationship between the financial institutions and farmers as individuals or as co-operatives could not be over emphasized.  Individual farmers could find relative bank services fit for a great initiative transformation. Financial scheme that enable peasant transformation into giants in agriculture are abundant such as a loan in agricultural cooperative society where many   individuals pull resources together. The level in individual maturity and productivity capacity could not be reckoned with.

Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) has been selected as a case organization. The Nigeria agricultural and co-operative bank is a specialized bank primary set up to enhance investment in agriculture. It was established in 1973 and was commissioned in 1975. it was later merged with people bank and the family economic advancement  programme (FEAP) in 2002. It grants loan to small holders and large investment holders. Its major problem is inaccessibility of credit by small scale farmers, this problem is solved by putting emphasis on co-operative formation.

Its objective include efficient and effective credit administration with target beneficiaries being rural poor. The minimum percentage of interest rate emerges when loan is granted and 8% maximum loan amount are revised upward depending on timely repayment of previous loans and client  investment.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The ability of the agricultural co-operative society to develop rapidly depends on the extent to which loan are being provided.  These have been concentrated effort by government to enhance agricultural productivity in Nigeria. For instance the federal and state government have set up some agencies like Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank, to help small stockholders by granting them loan to improve agricultural production.

But inspite of all the effort being made, farmers still experience low or decrease in production, due to the fact that farmers do not have collateral to offer. List of crop failure can be very high, interest charged an be too high for the returns economic activities, records are not properly kept for lack of insurance  coverage.

What are the causes of this low productivity in agricultural co-operative. What can be done to remedy the situation to make recommendation as to how banks can increase it effectiveness towards agricultural production.

Co-operative development in Nigeria have so many problem like improper funding both within and outside the co-operative complex government stifling control leading to over dependence on government handout. Government in Nigeria do not give concession to specialized banks which will enable them to extend adequate funds to co-operative societies.

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The general purpose of this project is to undertake a study and analyze how loan are being granted/administered to agricultural co-operative societies.

With the recent drive for higher efficiency by the co-operative societies and consequent effort being put in by banks and government in strengthening the existing co-operative enterprises.

The study will address the following objectives:

  • To determine the causes of low productivity in agricultural co-operatives
  • To determine what can be done to enhance agricultural production.
  • To appraise the contribution of banks to the profitability of agricultural development.
  • To make recommendation as to how bank can increase its support in agricultural co-operative.
  • To determine the level of involvement of co-operative as a business outfit and the overall management of their own co-operative enterprise.
  • To explore other possible ways in which cooperative can be assisted or supported.
  • To identify the problems that always confront co-operative societies which prevent them from meeting their financial obligations.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is very timely, especially now that the entire societies hands are on deck to enhance the development and growth of Nigerian economy.

This study will help farmers to know immense benefit of banks in financing agriculture; in addition lack of credit is a major factor. For the lack of development of agro business, hence it is required to buy input and improved technology. It is expected that this findings will help us to know that credit is a major accelerator of development. If other essentials needed for development are available. Through this investigation, therefore both banks and co-operative will undertake their short coming and will subsequently adopt measure aimed at enhancing agricultural effectiveness and development.

It will also help government to adopt the right agro business credit policies to enhance credit effectiveness. This study will help us to know the constraints in credit availability to farmers.

This work also intends to provide an adequate information about the technicalities and strategies involved in improving co-operative business enterprise which can serve as a guide to those people who mighty wish to get involved in this type of business and those already in it.

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research work will entail basic understanding about the contributions of banks to co-operative development. The research study is limited to the geographical and political boundaries of Nigeria in general and Enugu Metropolis in particular. It involves only Nigerian agricultural co-operative and rural development bank. Among other financial institutes, this study is to ascertain and analyze how loans are being administered to agricultural co-operative. How they have been able to facilitate the development of agricultural co-operative and to boast small stockholders and large –scale investors Nigeria agricultural co-operative and rural development bank (NACRDB) is being used as the case study.

This work also points out the relevance in a clear understanding of the meaning, need and essence of co-operative movement. It will concentrate on blending the importance of co-operative society.

1.6       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

It would have been ideal to involve other financial institution but for constraints of time, finance and other material resources, which makes it difficult as regards these projects only Nigerian agricultural co-operative and rural development banks were studied.

In the course of accomplishing this study the researcher faced so many limitations.

TIME

Its certain that time waits for no man , the period at hand is not enough to gather data from paper analysis, other academic responsibility and curriculum activities, all these has been an obstacle to this study.

FINANCE

A good project needs current and relevant information and they are just available in a place. So, one need to search from one place to other which require a lot of money, due to financial handicap as a student one have to channel all resources to one base.

Lack of relevant literature is also one of the problems because there was not much information about the project work. Another problem is the attitude of the respondents especially when it comes to being questioned, orally, filling returning the questionnaire. All these slowed the general pace of the progress.

1.7       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. Have banks been able to improve the efficiency of agricultural production in large scale?
  2. Does Nigerian government give concession to specialized banks which will enable them to extend adequate funds to co-operative societies?
  3. Have bank inputs been able to increase the volume of yield and manpower resources?
  4. Has it been able to increase the income of farmers?
  5. has it been able to make for easy access availability of credit to farmers?

1.8    DEFINITION OF TERMS

AGRICULTURE- Can be broadly defined as the art and science of production of plant and animals that are useful to man.

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY- Is an association f persons  who have voluntarily joined together to achieve a common end through the formation of a democratically controlled business organization, making equitable contributions to the capital required  and accepting a fair share of the risks and benefit of the undertaking in which the member actively participate.

GROUP LOAN/ CREDIT

     Non individuals credit in which funds for productivity purpose are extended to group of farmers.

COLLECTIVE FARMING

     This implies the entire members pooling resources and land together for coo-operative farming.

RETURNS ;These are monetary value resulting from scale of  output

BUDGETING ;Planning for future with respect to expenditure and income.

Loan Administration To Agricultural Co-Operative Societies By Nigeria Agricultural Co-Operative And Rural Development Bank In Enugu.

 

 

African Philosophy and the challenges of development

African   Philosophy   and the challenges of development

ABSTRACT

The quest for development is a special area where African condition has greatly influenced African Philosophical thinking. It is the task of philosophy to assess the relevance of African philosophy to African development therefore; African philosophy must not shy away from its proper task. Philosophical knowledge obtained from African philosophy should be used to develop the continent Continue reading African Philosophy and the challenges of development

Idea of development in the philosophy of kwasi wiredu

 Idea of development in the philosophy of kwasi wiredu:A Philosophical appraisal

ABSTRACT

Africa is regarded as a continent of third world countries: an identity which effectively designates her as an under-developed part of the world; and rightly so. After several decades of colonialism, ‘self-rule, imperialism and neo-colonialism, Africa is still immersed in confusion as regards her future. There is hunger, poverty and immense suffering. In some parts of Africa, the situation has so degenerated that the fundamental needs and rights of human life have Continue reading Idea of development in the philosophy of kwasi wiredu

GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS

ABSTRACT

Globalization and economic development in Nigeria is one of the results of colonialism. It widens the gap between the rich and the poor; hence it is force of inequality which enslave the African nations and it economy. Globalization is not a course in totality but it is relative on the impact it has for each economy, whether developed or underdeveloped since it opens an avenue for each Continue reading GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

PHILOSOPHY AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

PHILOSOPHY AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF NIGERIA SOCIO-ECONOMIC SITUATION.

ABSTRACT

It is generally believed that philosophy is a pure abstract speculation about theories which have no bearing on practical life. This means that philosophy plays no major role in nation building. This view about philosophy is false because the  history of western philosophy has shown that philosophy is one of the instruments that have shaped societies and its relevance can be of immence Continue reading PHILOSOPHY AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

THE IMPORTANCE OF FEMINISM IN DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIAN POLITICS: AN EXPOSITION

THE IMPORTANCE OF FEMINISM IN DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIAN POLITICS: AN EXPOSITION

ABSTRACT

This thesis is concerned with the feminist role in the development of Nigerian politics. This work show how women are been marginalized by our cultural practice. This study aimed at stating how feminism started and the positive effect it has on our political system starting from post-colonial era. The method used in this work is empirical analysis which was used to expose the history of feminism in Nigerian politics. Continue reading THE IMPORTANCE OF FEMINISM IN DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIAN POLITICS: AN EXPOSITION

THE ROLE OF WOMEN STRUCTURES IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

THE ROLE OF WOMEN STRUCTURES IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (A STUDY OF EHA-ALUMONA IN NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

ABSTRACT

Government neglect to the development of rural areas have led to the backwardness of many areas. This situation attracts the attention of women structures to chart the course of development and embark on self-help projects to uplift their communities. Therefore, the scope of the research work is concentrated on the role of women structures in community development with a particular attention drawn to Eha-alumona, Nsukka local government area Enugu state. To gather information, the researcher distributed questionnaires to the sample population and personally interviewed the leaderships of the women structures and others in the community to ascertain their view on the impact of women structure in their community. The data collection reveals that women structures have contributed immensely to the development of the community. Their efforts have led to the building of schools, church, market, health care centre, award of scholarships, federal roads, electricity, pipe borne water, moderation of excessive culture, installation of security, maintenance of peace and order, resolution of conflicts etc. the researcher recommends that the governments (local, state and federal), traditional rulers, leaders of towns should give total support to the women organizations. The women structures should abhor corruption among themselves. The government should give matching grants and technical assistance when the need arises. It is quite evident from the foregoing analysis that women structures have made giant strides towards socio-political, economic and technological upliftment of some communities they have maximize the opportunities around them via the mobilization of available human, material and non-material resources in their environment.
Continue reading THE ROLE OF WOMEN STRUCTURES IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT