Incidence Of Ascaris Lumbricoides In Stool Among Children

The Incidence Of Ascaris Lumbricoides In Stool Among Children Between The Ages Of 5 And 10 Years In Obeleagu Umana Village In Enugu State.

The incidence of Ascaris lumbricoides in stools among children in Obeleagu Umana community between the ages of 5 and 10 years in Enugu state Viz: Umuonyi,  Umuanekeuba and Umudim was analysed by the direct smear and concentration methods of faecal examination. The aim of this work is to determine the incidence of Ascaris lubricoides in stool among children in Obeleagu Umana community between the ages of 5 and 10 years in Enugu State.  15 stool samples were collected and examined, and it was observed that the infestation was highest in stools collected from Umuonyi, followed by Umuanekeuba, and lastly by Umudim, Also the Ascaris infection was found to be more among children within the age limit of 5 – 7 years, whereas there was a reduction within the age limit of 8 – 10 years. The high Ascaris infection in Enugu metropolis among children was due to poor hygiene and poor sanitary conditions.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF THE STUDY

It is important to know the different distribution of helminintes (worms) infection based on the study of ecological, geographical and epidemiological condition.

Ascarasis is among the most common infections occurring through out the whole world. This infections has been associated with low standard of sanitation i.e poor sanitation (Cheesbrough, 1998). Ascaris lumbricoides (Large intestinal round worm) has a world wide distribution. It is particularly common in the tropics and subtropics in places where environmental sanitation is inadequate and untreaed human faeces are used as fertilizer (night – soil). In 1995, WHO (World Health Organization) estimated that there were 250 million persons infected with A. lumbricoides died from ascariasis. Again in 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there were 1,450 million persons infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and annually, 60,000  dying from ascariasis. Ascariasis was probably the first of all parasitism to the recognized by man. The parasite is large and very common. The Greek called it by the name it has today, that is “intestinal worm”, uneducated people in North America less than a century ago knew Ascaris and referred to them as pale worms, often seen in children faeces as “guardian angels”. A researcher has shown that the helminth has a world wide distribution throughout the topics and the alarming statistical fact that world infection rate was 107%, Ogumba, E.O. (2004) investigating children in Ibadan found the incidence of Ascaris, Hookworm, Trichuris to range from 40%  to 110% at the end of dry season. There are an estimated 4 million people infected in the USA, with the disease being highest among children and there are about 2 cases of  intestinal obstruction caused by ascariasis, 3% of the cases of obstruction die (Werner, D. et al, 1993). The larver of Ascaris  lumbricoides causes pneumonia, while in lungs symptomatology, a condition related to worm density, when present in small numbers in the intestine, they produce no apparent disturbance. But at higher density, obstruction and pari possible followed by gut perforation. The worms may migrate into unusual place like the bile, liver and stomach which may result to death of the host.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Ascaris has created problems in tropical African countries, children suffer great threat resulting from ascarisis. It causes problems such as diarrhea, anaemia, loss of weight, weakness, intestinal obstruction in children, vomiting, abdominal pain, impairment of protein digestion and absorption etc and some pathological effects that could lead to death.

1.3       AIM OF THE STUDY

The aim of this project is to determine the incidence of Ascaris lumbricoides in stools among children between the ages of 5 – 10 years in Obeleagu Umana Community in Enugu State.

  1. To determine the rate of occurance of ascariasis in children.
  2. To isolate the different species of Ascaris in children.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study of ascariasis intestinal helminthiasis has brought about the best strategies in preventing the wide spread of intestinal parasitic worm. Ascaris lumbricoides) in children especially in tropical/rural areas and also the control measures including the available drugs and role of sanitation.

1.5       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This project work on “incidence of Ascaris lumbricoides in stool among children between the ages of 5 and 10 years in Obeleagu Umuana village in Enugu State “was limited only to three (3) villages in Obeleagu Umana due to time and financial factors.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW

Ascaris  lumbricoides was probably first mentioned by Ransay (1934), after working in twelve localities in Northern Nigria and the incidence was 6.1%. According to chandler and Read (1954), Ascaris  lumbricoides is a large nematodes parasite that inihibits the human small intestine where it feeds on digested foods. It is one of the most common nematodes infections of mankinds, involving about two-thrid (2/3) of the world’s population. Ascaris lumbricoides does not attack the tissue but may occur in such large numbers that it blocks the gut. The adult worms commonly bites the mucous membrances with its lips suck blood and tissue juices. Ascaris is a thread-like animal almost devoid of external natures. The body is covered by a lubicle and there are no cilia. The gut has two opening, the mouth and anus which make its feeding, digestion and absorption more efficient. It can reach a length of 30cm for male while female worms range in size from 20-25cm in length and 2.6mm in diameter.

Ascaris lumbricoides belong to the class-

Nematoda, family – Ascarididal, phylum. Nemathelminthes (Adetokunbo and Herbert, 2003; brooks etal, 2007). The female worm is yrolific, laying up to 200,000 eggs a day. the typical egg has a yellowish – brown mamillated appearance.

2.1       FEATURES OF ASARIS LUMBRICOIDES

Ascaris  lumbricoides is a thread-like animal almost devoid of external yeatures. The body is covered by a lubicle and there are no cilia. The gut has two openings, the mouth and anus. Because of its double opening, feeding, digestion and absorption is more efficient.  Longitudinal muscles beneath the ectoderm enable movement of the body. The absence of circular muscles, however, permits only a back and forth thrashing motion. The excretory system consist of canals which open to out side by an excretory pore.

Fig 1: Gravid female of  A. Lumbricoides

  1. Oesophagus. 2. Intestine                     3. Ovary
  2. Vulva 5. Oviduct        6.  Uterus.

Figure 2: Mature male of A.  lumbricoides

  1. Oesophagus 2. Intestine       3. Testis           4. Seminal vesicle

(source: Davey, T.H. et al, 1973).

2.2       THE LIFE CYCLE OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES

The structural and life forms of helmininthes are generally complex and their life cycle changes from simple production of larvae (Juvenile stage) to complex alternative of generation involving as many as two to three direct hosts. There are many life cycle mode within the parasitic helminites. Some use direct life mode while others use indirect life mode/cycle. Direct life cycle involves only single host species used by many nematodes and cestoda. In indirect cycle, the parasite are those in which more than one host is used to complete the life cycle, example as in tremaatodes (flukes), utilizing snails as the intermediate host (Muoneke, 2003).

For the life cycle of Ascaris  lumbriciodes the unembryonated eggs are passed in faeces and take some days to devlop into the infection egg. The infective egg is swallowed in water or form contaminated food and then is hatched in the small intestine and penetrate it derive its food. Transmission of A. lumbriciodes is spread by faeces pollution of the environment. A person become infected by ingesting infective eggs in contaminated food or from hands that have become faecally contaminated. The mature worms live free in the intestine. Fertilized female worms produce many eggs per day. the eggs can remain viable in soil and dust for several years. These factors contribute to the wide spread and often heavy Ascaris infections which can be found especially among children of 3 – 8 years whose fingers become contaminated while playing on open ground. The worms can live 1-2 years in their host. The direct life cycle of A. lumbricoides is summarized belo

TRANSMISSION

1.     Infective eggs

ingested in food or from contaminated hands

Figure 3: TRANSMISSION AND LIFE CYCLE OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES

(SOURCE: CHEESBROUGHT, 1998)

2.3       PATHOGENESIS AND SOURCES INFECTION

pathogenesis describes the origin of damages caused by parasitc and how these damages originated through the activates of the parasite.

Ascaris Pathology: The parasite causes a lot harm and in conveniences due to its warrdering nature in the body. It caused intestinal abotraction, which is a serious complication of ascariasis.

Ascariasis interferes with protein digestion in children and combination with hookworm infection. Ascaris lumbricoides, they are carried to the lings and excape into the air spaces. As the larva break out the lungs capillaries, they cause hecmorrhage and the accompanying accumulation of pools of blood, dead tissue etc. Lead to congestion ascaris infection interferes with normal metabolism and nutrition (Cowper, 1960).

The primary source of worm infestation is the food or water contaminated with infected faces. When these parasites are passed out through the anus, Some of them find their way to food used by man  get it contaminated their way to food used by man and get it contaminated examples are ascaris egg on vegetable like: Cabbage and other  vegetables eaten raw or poorly washed. Another sources of ascaris infection is the soil, that it the soil bore infective stage,, here the eggs of this worm hatch in the soil and larvia find its way into the host by active boring into the skin i.e the worm is geohelminth.

2.4       CONTROL OPTION PARASITIC HELMINTHES

In the whole range of the diseases of man, it is in the field of intestinal parasites that obedience to the rule of cleanliness and the laws of sanitation proves most effective in preventing diseases. Prevention is the duty of everyone and prevention can only follow an understanding of the basic scientific principle or method underlying the cause and spread of disease in non and animal (Harod and Hubert, 1997).

Effort have been made for the establishment of public health department and general health service, installation of good toilets, administration which serve to influence individual and community attitudes favorable on matter of sanitations, nutrition and other aspects of disease prevention.  Based on these, the WHO has mapped a number of control options. They are subdivided into two (2) categories:

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL: Which includes improved sanitation, unifected water and food supply, ensuring that foods are free of parasite eggs and larval (Lucas and Gilles, 2003).
  2. mass Treatment: This involves the use of mass chemotherapeutic agents (drugs) to treat  the whole family with suitable worm expeller periodically. The mass treatment of children should be done using a single dose of one of the broad – spectrum antihelminthics. Some of the suggested drugs for the treatment of ascariasis include:
  3. Albendszole
  4. Mebendazole

iii.        Pyrantel

Stool samples were collected form children and  three different village in obeleagu umana. The villages were Umuoyi, Umuanekeuba and Umudim.

The Incidence Of Ascaris Lumbricoides In Stool Among Children Between The Ages Of 5 And 10 Years In Obeleagu Umana Village In Enugu State.

Risk Factors And Spatial Patterns Of Schistosoma Haematobium Infection Among Children

Risk Factors And Spatial Patterns Of  Schistosoma Haematobium Infection Among School Children In Town School Primary School, In Nkanu East L.G.A

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional survey was conducted to precisely determine the prevalence of schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium in Town School Primary School, Umunevo, Amagueze in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. Out of 45 urine samples collected in Town School Primary School, Umunevo, 25 (55.6%) were found to be  infected. More males than females were infected. Children  in 9-12 age group recorded the highest prevalence of (80%). Recommendations are made on its ways of reducing urinary schistosomiasis infecting school children in this region.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Schistosomiasis also known as Bilharziasis is a disease caused by blood flukes (trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. It remains an important public health problem globally with an estimated 200 million cases reported each year (Engels et al, 2002). There are two types of schistosomasis, namely: Urinary Schitstosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium and the Intestinal Schistosomiasis caused by four different dioecious species which are: Schitstosoma manoni, S. mekongi, S. intercalatum and S. Japonicum (Wiset, 1996).

Urinary Schistosomiasis is one of the threatening parasite disease of man (Hagan et al, 2001). The danger it pose the population in endemic area is growing. This is because increased water and energy requirement have led to the development of new breeding places for the snail host (e.g irrigation, projects, dams), for instance, the Volta dam lake in Ghana and Aswan dam lake in Egypt (Hagan et  al ,2005).

People are infected by contact with infested water during their normal daily activities for personal or domestic purposes, such as hygiene and recreation (swimming), or in professional activities such as fishing, rice cultivation, irrigation etc (Kabatereine et al, 2004).

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this study were:

  1. To determine the prevalence of Schistosomiasis among school children in Town School Primary School, Amagunze
  2. To know the risk factors associated with the infection.
  3. Finally, to educate the school children on how to avoid being infected with the disease.

1.1     LITERATURE REVIEW

          Schistosomiasis is the second most socio economically devastating parasitic disease after malaria (The Carter Center, 2008). This disease is most commonly found in Asia, Africa, and South America, in areas where the water contains numerous freshwater snails, which are intermediate host of the parasite. About 85% of the cases reported annually occur in sub-Saharan Africa and over 150,000 deaths are attributable to chronic infection with S. haematobium in this region (Southgate et al, 2005), (Vander et al, 2003). The disease affects many people in developing countries, particularly children who may acquire the disease by swimming or playing in cercariae infested waters (The Carter Center, 2008).

Schistosomiasis, also called Bilharziasis, was named after Theodor Bilharz, who first described the cause of urinary Schistosomiasis in 1851. The first doctor who described the entire cycle was Piraja Da Silva in 1908.  Urinary Schistosomiasis was first discovered in soldiers of Napoleon stationed in Egypt between 1779 and 1891 who suffered servere  haematuria.

In Nigeria, urinary Schistosomiasis is known to have existed from time immemorial and might have brought to the country by the migrating Fulani people when they traveled westwards from the Nile Basin (Cowper,1992). The earliest record of urinary Schistosomiasis in Nigeria is that of a  German  explorer who, in 1881, published the occurrence of endemic  haematuria in Bonny province (Akufongwe et al, 1996).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Nigeria is one of the countries most seriously affected by urinary Schistosomiasis and the disease of hyperendemic over large areas (WHO, 2001)

1.1.1            EPIDEMIOLOGY

The disease is found in tropical countries in Africa, the Caribbean, Eastern South America, South East Asia and in the Middle East. Schistosoma mansoni is found in parts of South America and the Caribbean, Africa, and the Middle East; S. haematabium in Africa and the Middle East, and S. japonicum in the far East. S. Mekongi  and S. interculatum are found locally in south east Asia and Central West Africa, respectively.

Schistosomiasis is endemic in 74-76 developing countries, infecting more than 200 million people, half of who  live in rural agricultural and peri-urban areas of Africa and more than 600 million people are at risk (Oliveira et al, 2004), (Carter Center 2008).

Of the infected patients, 20milion suffered severe consequences from the disease, and 120 million are symptomatic. Some estimate show that approximately 20, 000 deaths related to Schistosomiasis occur yearly. In many areas  Schistosomiasis infects a large proportion of children under 14 years of age (satayathum et al, 2006). An estimated 600 million people world wide are at risk from the disease (Engels et al, 2003).

A few countries have eradicated the disease, and many more are working towards it. The World Health Organization is promoting these efforts. In some cases, urbanization, pollution, and /or consequent destruction of snail habitat has reduced exposure, with a subsequent decrease in new infectious. The most common way of contacting Schistosomiasis in developing countries is by wading or swimming in lakes, ponds and other bodies of water that are infested  with the intermediate host snails (usually of the Biomphalaria, Bulinus, or Oncomelania genus). (De Cassia et al, 2007).

1.1.2            PATHOLOGY

          The eggs of S. haematobium provoke granulomatous inflammation, ulceration, and pseudopolyposis of vesicle and urethral walls. Adult are found in the venous  plexuses around the urinary bladder and the released eggs transverse the wall of the bladder causing haematuria and fibrosis of the bladder. The bladder becomes calcified, and there is increased pressure on ureters and otherwise known as hydronephrosis. Kidney failure deaths due to urinary tract scarring, deformity of ureters and the bladder caused by S. heamatobium infection have become less common due to modem drugs, (Gryseels et al, 2006), (King et al, 2002). Inflammation of the genitals due to S. haematobium may contribute to the propagation of HIV (Leutscher et al, 2005). Studies have also shown the relationship between S. haematobium infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder (Khurana et al, 2005).

Schistosomiasis can be divided into three phases:

  1. The migratory phase lasting from penetration to maturity
  2. The acute phase which occurs when the schistosomes begin producing eggs,
  3. The chronic phase which occurs mainly in endemic areas (Black, 2005).

1.1.3            LIFE CYCLE

The free swimming, infective larval cercariae penetrates the human skin when exposed to contaminated  water. The cercariae enter the blood stream of the host where they travel to the liver to mature into adult  flukes. In order to avoid detection by the immune system of the host, the adult worm have the ability to coat themselves with host antigen (Black, 2005). After a period of about three weeks the young flukes migrate to the bladder to copulate. The female fluke lays as many as 3,000 eggs per day eggs which migrate to the lumen of the urinary bladder and ureters. The eggs are eliminated from the host into the water supply with micturition. In fresh water, the eggs hatch forming free swimming miracidia which penetrate into the intermediate snail host, Bulinus Species (Black, 2005). Inside the snail, the miracidium sheds

its epithelium and develops into a mother sporocysts. After two weeks daughter sporocysts are formed. Four weeks after the initial penetration of the miracidium into the snail, furcocercous cercariae (infective stage) being to emerge from the snail. The cercariae cycle from the top of the water to the bottom for three days in the search for a human host. Within half an hour the cercariae enter the host epithelium (Roberts and Janovy, 1996).

1.1.4            SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease and infections are subclinically symptomatic, with mild anaemia being common in endemic areas.

The first symptom of the disease is an intense initiation and skin rash (dermatitis) formally called swimmers’ itch, which occurs within 24hours of the infection at the site of cercarial penetration as a result of hypersensitvity reaction (James, et al, 2006). After an incubation period of about 4-6 weeks, there is fever (Katayama fever) with general weakness and prostration which are often mistaken for that of malaria, followed by cough and pulmonary reactions as the parasites migrate through the lungs (Dalton et al, 2004). As the worm grows to maturity in the hepatic portal veins, the patient may complain of loss of appetite and weight.

Intestinal symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea (which may be bloody).

Urinary symptoms many include frequent urination, painful urination (dysuria), and blood in the urine (haematuria). Haematuria is the most characteristic sign of urinary schistosomiasis

Other symptoms of schistosomiasis may include slight hepatitis, hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, Eosinophilia and Genital sores.

1.1.5            DIAGNOSIS

The presence of microhaematuria is detected using combi-9-strip, a reagent strip which can also be used to detect the presence of protienuria. Detection of blood and protein in the urine sample is just a subjective of the disease and is not confirmatory. A confirmatory diagnosis of the disease is by detecting a terminal spine ova in the urine sample of the patient (Cheesbrough, 1999). This diagnosis method is most commonly carried out owing to its simplicity and low cost. The eggs are rarely found in faeces.

Other diagnostic methods of the disease include x-rays examination of the bladder wall for calcified eggs, ultrasonograph and serological tests (complement fixation test), Betonite Flocculation Test and Interadermal Skin Test using antigen prepared from cercariae and adult worms. A rapid diagnostic antibody test in the form of dipstick has also been developed and it is in current use in Egypt (El-khoby et al, 1998). This diagnostic method above is not in use in this part of the world owing to their high cost and unavailability. An immunodiagnostic assay for Schistosoma haematobium infection is based on two systems. One is based on the detection of antibodies produced by the hosts’ immune response to the specific adult worm-microsoma antigen using the Falcon Assay Screening Test (FAST), Enzyme Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (ELISA) and Enzyme Linked Immune-electro Transfer Blot (ELTB). The other is based on the detection of circulation of schistosomal antigen using monoclonal antibodies. The soluble genus of specific adult worm antigens include Circulative Anodic Antigen (CAA) and the Circulatory Soluble Egg Antigen (CSEA) (Parija, 1998).

Al-shebing et al, (1999) showed that sensitivity of detecting  Schistosoma haematobium, circulatory antigens and antibodies improved significantly, when a combination of urine CCA and serum CAA were used for detecting circulation of antibodies against Schistosoma haematobium  adult worm –microsomal antigen. Detection of soluble antigen will not only quantify the parasite load but will also detect recent infections.

  • PREVENTION AND CONTROL

ELIMINATING OR AVOIDING THE SNAILS

          Preventing is best accomplished by eliminating the water-dwelling snails that are the natural reservoir of the disease. Acrolein, Copper Sulphate, and Niclosamide   can be used for this purpose. Recent studies have suggested that snail population can be controlled by the introduction of, or angementation of exiting, crayfish populations, as with all ecological interventions, however, this technique must be approached with caution.

In 1989, Aklilu Lemma and Legesse Wolde Yohannes received the Right Livelihood Award for their research on the use to sarcoca plant to control the snails. Concurrently, Dr chidzeve of Zimbabwe researched the similar Gopo berry  during the 1980s and found that it could be used in the control of infected freshwater snails. In 1981, he drew attention to his concerns that big chemical companies denigrated the Gopo Berry alternative for snail control. Reputedly Gopo Berries from hotter Ethiopia climates yield the best results. Later, further studies were conducted between 1993 and 1995 by the Danish Research Network for international health, and the results was the same with the Gopo Berries (Molgaard et al, 2000).

PREVENTION THROUGH GOOD DESIGN

For many years from the 1950s onwards, civil engineers built vast dams and irrigation schemes, oblivious to the fact that they would cause a massive rise in water-borne infections like schistosomiasis. The detailed specifications laid out in various UN documents since the 1950s could have minimized this problem.

Irrigation schemes can be designed to make it hard for the snails to colonize the water, and to reduce the contact with the local population (Charnock, 2000). Bridges should also be constructed in endemic areas where mostly their source of water supplies  are streams, rivers and ponds

PREVENTION THROUGH EDUCATIONAL MEASURES

          Education of the populace (mainly those in endemic areas) on the need for proper sanitary condition and hygiene is of paramount important in the prevention and control of urinary  schistosomiasis. They should also be educated on the importance of seeking proper medical attention early, more especially when they experience blood urine and pains during urination.

          Defeacation or urination in or near open water or stream should be avoided so that snails will have less chance of becoming infected. There is also need to make use of protective covering like rubber boots if there is any need to enter an infected water. In Bao-uniao,in Brazil, the use of rubber boots during field work has been shown to reduce the transmission of urinary schistosomiasis by preventing contact with cercariae- infected water  (Gazzinelli et al, 1997).    

1.1.7            TREATMENT

Schistosomiasis is readily treated using a single oral dose of the drug praziquantel annually (The Carter Centre, 2008). As with other major parasitic diseases, there is ongoing and extensive research into developing a schistosomiasis vaccine that will prevent the parasite from completing its life cycle in humans.

The World Health Organization has developed guidelines for community treatments of schistosomiasis based on the estimate intensity of infection among children in endemic villages (WHO, 2006).

When a village reports more than  50 percent of children having blood in their urine, everyone in the village receives treatment (WHO, 2006).

When 20 to 50 percent of children have bloody urine, only school-age children are treated (WHO, 2006).

When less than 20 percent of children have symptoms, mass treatment is not implemented at all (WHO, 2006).

The Bill & Melinda Gates foundation has recently funded an operational research program-the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) to answer strategic questions about the way forward in schistosomiasis control and elimination. The focus of SCORE is on development of tools and evaluation of strategies for use in mass drug and administration campaigns.

Antimony has been used in the past to treat the disease. In low doses, this toxic mettalloid bonds to sulfur atoms in enzymes used by the parasite and kills it without harming the host. This treatment is not referred to in present day peer- review scholarship; praziquantel is universally used. Outside of the U.S, there is a second drug available for treating Schistosoma mansoni (exclusively) called Oxaminique.

Mirazid, an Egyptian drug, was under investigation for oral treatment of the disease up untill 2005. The efficacy of Praziquantel was proven to be about 8 times that of Mirazid and therefore it was not recommended as a suitable agent to control Schistosomiasis (king et al, 2002).

Experiments have shown that medicinal castor oil is an oral-penetration agent to prevent Schistosomiasis and that praziquantel effectiveness depended upon the vehicle used to administer the drug (e.g., cremophor/castor oil) (salafsky et al, 1999).

Risk Factors And Spatial Patterns Of  Schistosoma Haematobium Infection Among School Children In Town School Primary School, In Nkanu East L.G.A

EFFECTS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY ON THE LEARNING OF THE CHILDREN IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

THE EFFECTS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY ON THE LEARNING OF THE CHILDREN IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KWALI AREA COUNCIL, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA.

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this research work is to investigate into the effect of Juvenile Delinquency  on the Learning of Children in Primary Schools in Kwali Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory.

 The researcher posed five questions as follows:

What are the effects of stealing on the Learning of the children?

What are the effects of aggression on the Learning of the children?

What are the effects of cheating on the Learning of the children?

What are the effects of alcoholism and drug abuse on the Learning of the children?

What are the effects of promiscuity on the Learning of the children?

A questionnaire of four Likert scales was used by the researcher to collect the data. She used simple percentage to analyze the data. The findings of the work showed that juvenile delinquency have numerous negative effects on the learning of the children. To conclude, the researcher recommended ways for the teachers, parents, school authorities, guidance counsellors, curriculum planners, etc, to use in order to combat juvenile delinquency in our schools, homes and society at large.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 Background of the Study

          It is glaring that many teachers at one time or the other have to bring classroom discussion to a pause in other to handle problem behaviour of the pupils. However, not all forms of problem behaviour may so disrupt the classroom procedures.

There are many special problems of children such as: Juvenile delinquency, stammering, nail biting and thumb sucking, enuresis and truancy. These behaviour problems are important to teachers because they need to help the children who have them. For learning to occur in any of the children with behaviour problem, such problem must be dealt with. One of the behaviour problems which hampers learning is juvenile delinquency. If the children are allowed to live with the problem(s), they affect the children’s classroom work and can also grow into very serious problem in future.

Juvenile delinquency can be said to be “the anti-social behaviour of a criminal nature exhibited by a young person under the age of 18” (NTI 2000, EDU 113) primary schools, children manifest problem behaviours some of which are anti-social. Among such behaviours are: stealing, aggression, cheating, alcoholism and drug abuse, promiscuity, e.t.c.

Stealing is the commonest of the delinquencies. The children may steal pencils, biros, erasers, books and money from their classmates. Sometimes, parent’s money could be stolen and brought to the school by their children. It is advisable that the teachers should note the child that comes to school with a lot of money and report to the appropriate authority.

Aggression is another form of delinquency. It is typically reaction to frustration. Young pupils especially boys, tend to be aggressive. Aggression emendates in the following ways: fighting, bullying of the juniors by the seniors, damaging of school property and mockery. Fighting may result into death.

A common act of delinquency is cheating. Cheating is common in examinations. Some children bring written materials into the examination class or hall to copy. Others copy from their seat mates. Teachers should be vigilant to detect cheats, especially, during examinations and test. He should take time and explain the consequences of cheating to the pupils so that they could shun it.

Alcoholism and Drug Abuse are found in the upper primary classes, some of whom are of secondary school age. Illicit gins and drug may sometimes be brought to school in small containers. The teachers should be vigilant about such cases and provide the necessary remedy because if not checked, may lead to addiction in later life.

In the upper primary classes, some matured girls may be promiscuous. They may have boyfriends (Lovers) among the matured boys and even teachers. This may result into pregnancy. The pregnancy may lead to abortion and the abortion in turn may result into dangerous consequences such as death.

Delinquency generally is common among adolescents but can still be found among primary school pupils and will definitely affect their learning negatively.

Statement of the Problem

Juvenile delinquency is a problem found among pupils of primary schools especially upper classes and also in junior secondary schools as well as senior secondary schools. This behaviour problem is a psychological problem and can therefore affect the learning of the children negatively. In fact, the negative effect of the problem will not only be on the delinquents but also on other pupils in the class in particular and the school in general. It also affects the teaching negatively.

Some teachers feel that they should not concern themselves with the delinquent or anti-social behaviours of the pupil. This is bad and sad. A good deal of school problems can be prevented by the school and by suitable behaviour of the teachers. It is based on the negative consequences that Juvenile delinquency posed on the learning of the pupils (delinquents), learning of other pupils in the class and the school, the instruction of the teachers, the parents and the society in general, that the researcher decided to investigate into the effects of juvenile delinquency on the learning of the children in primary schools in Kwali Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this research is to investigate into the effects of juvenile delinquency on the learning of the children in primary schools in Kwali Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory.

To find out the effects of stealing on the learning of the children.

To investigate into the effects of aggression on the learning of the children.

To ascertain the effects of cheating on the learning of the children.

To find out the effects of alcoholism and drug abuse on the learning of the children.

To investigate into the effects of promiscuity on the learning of the children.

 Research Questions

          The researcher decided to ask the following questions in order to find solutions to the research problem.

What are the effects of stealing on the learning of the children?

What are the effects of aggression on the learning of the children?

What are the effects of cheating on the learning of the children?

What are the effects of alcoholism and drug abuse on the learning of the children?

What are the effects of promiscuity on the learning of the children?

Significance of the Study        

The results and findings of this work will help the teachers to be able to cope with the juvenile delinquents in their classes.

Secondly, it will also assist the school administrators to find some measures to prevent Juvenile delinquency in the school.

Thirdly, parents will also be assisted on how to cope and prevent Juvenile delinquency in their homes.

Fourthly, parents will be encouraged to support academically any of their children that he/she is a delinquent, and not to consider them as outcast since there is hope for them to change for good.

Fifthly, the juvenile delinquents will be advised to shun any kind of delinquency that they may be indulged in as this is detrimental to their health as well as learning.

Sixthly, this work will help guidance counsellors to tighten up their belts in respect of their job as counsellors in order to properly guide those pupils that are found with behaviour problem.

Seventhly, the work will help curriculum planners on how to plan curriculum taking into cognisance that some behaviour problems abound among some students in the school.

Lastly, the school administrators will be advised to employ the services of school counsellors and thus provide them with offices and the necessary equipment in each school.

Scope of the Study

Geographically, this study will cover primary schools in Kwali Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. Content wise, it will be on the effects of juvenile delinquency on the children focussing on the effects of the juvenile delinquency on the learning of the children, on the learning of other pupils who are class mates or school mates of the Juvenile delinquents, effects of the juvenile delinquency on the instruction or teaching of the teachers, how juvenile delinquency affects the contribution of the parents toward learning of their children particularly, the juvenile delinquents and lastly, the effects of juvenile delinquency on the society in general.