MICRO ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PALMS OF FISH HANDLERS

MICRO ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PALMS OF FISH HANDLERS IN OKO, ORUMBA NORTH L.G.A ANAMBRA STATE

ABSTRACT

Studies on the micro organisms associated with the palms of fish handlers in Oko, Orumba North Local government Area of Anambra state was carried out. Five (5) samples were collected by swabbing the palms of five (5) different fish handlers and swabs placed in sterile containers of distilled water and cultured

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After payment, text the name of the project, email address and your names to 08064502337 on Nutrient. Agar, MacConkey Ager, Chocolate, Blood Agar, potato Dextrose Agar, sabobourand Dextrose Ager, and yeast Extract. Analysis revealed the presence of staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, micrococcus spp, streptococcus spp, klebsiella spp, pseudomonas spp as bacterial isolates These micro organisms are pathogenic and the risk of infection can be reduced by observing hygienic practices at all levels of production, transportation, storage, handling, marketing and processing of fish

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

According to Mader, (2001), fishes are aquatic, gill-breathing vertebrates that usually have fins and skin covered with scales.

Also, Taylor, Green and Stout, (2002), defined fish as a variety cold-blooded vertebrate animal that lives in fresh and salt water, they breathe through the gills and use fins and tail for swimming.

According to Fox and Cameron, (1995), the fresh of fish is composed of bundles of short fibres called myomeres, which are held together by thin layers of connective tissue composed of collagen. Thus, protein of fish differs from that of meat in having less connective tissue and no elastin. The absence of tough elastin and the conversion of collagen into gelatin which occurs during cooking, make the protein of cooked fish easily digestible. Fish contains rather more water and waste matters than meat. The varieties of fish consumed have also changed in recent years. In the UK cod, together with haddock, halibut and plaice, have traditionally been the most popular fish farming is also a developing industry both salmon fish and rainbow trout being produced in this way in Britain.

Gutbrie and Picciano, (1995) opined that fish is one of the source of protein-rich foods. The protein rich foods provides over half of all the protein recommended in the diet, 61% of vitamin B12, from 33% to 50% of the iron and 47% of the niacin. Fish, which was once a relatively low-priced protein source, is increasing in price as its popularity grows because of its perceived health benefits.

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According to Mader, (2001), fish is generally divided into two broad categories, the jawless fishes and fishes with jaws. Fishes with jaws are further divided into two, the cartilaginous fishes and the bony fishes.

Fox and Cameron, (1995), opined that nutritionally, fish can be divided into classes, place, which contain very little fat (usually less than 2%) and fat fish such as herring, trout and salmon which usually contain 10-25% fat.

Microbial Assessment

According to Frazier and Westhoff (2004), different types of micro-organisms can invade the skin of fish or penetrate into the intestine. Various types of micro organisms that can be seen in fish are bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoan. Jay, (2003), reported that the genera of mold, most frequently found in fish is Aureobasidium (pullaria) and the genera of yeast frequently found are candida, Cryptococcus and rhodotorula.

According to Frazier and Westhoff, (2004), the number of micro-organisms on the skin of fish can be influenced by the method of catching, for example, trawling fish net exposure of the fish to high bacterial counts in the disturbed bottom sediment and this load on the fish.

Willey, Sherwood and Wollverton, (2002), opined that micro-organism are ubiquitous but are abundant in any place where their nutritive requirement supplied. Water provides an environment for a wide variety of micro organisms to survive and function. Microbial diversity depends on available nutrients, their varying concentration (ranging from extremely low to very high levels). A critical adaptation of micro organisms in aquatic systems is the ability to link and use resources that are in separate locations only for short interval such as during storms.

Also Mckane and Kandel, (1996), added that rivers, lakes and the coastal marine environment acquire most of their microflora from soil microbes that wash into water. Many of these soil microbes becomes normal microflora in fresh water, but only a few grow in the ocean.

According to Tavares, (2000), other sources of contamination are vessels transport and retailers. Also, raw materials for processing can become a source of contamination.

According to Frazier and Westhott (2004), aseptic methods to reduce contamination of sea foods are difficult to apply but some of the gross contamination before processing can be avoided by general clearing and sanitation of boats, holds bins, or other containers and processing equipment in the plant and by the use of ice of good bacteriological quality. The removal of soil from contaminating surfaces and from the fish by adequate clearing methods, including effective detergent solutions, helps greatly to reduce the microbial load on the fish. The removal of organisms is difficult but the fact that most of the contamination is on the outer surface of fish and other sea food permits the removal of many of the micro organisms by washing off slime and dirty.

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Methods of Storage and Preservations

According to Frazier and Westhott, (2004), freezing is the very good method for long-term storage of microbial samples when carried out properly. Because frozen of fish can contain many micro organisms it could be prepared and consumed promptly after thawing (deicing) in order to avoid spoilage and pathogen growth. Refrigeration greatly slow microbial growth and reproduction, but does not halt it completely.

Fortunately most pathogens are mesophilic and do not grow well at temperature around 4°C. The rate and kind of deterioration of fish before freezing will depend on the condition of the fish at harvesting and the methods of handling thereafter. The temperature at which the fish is held and other environmental conditions will determine the kind of micro organisms to grow and the changes to be produced.

According to Adebayo, (1999),the traditional methods of fish preservation mostly used in Nigeria are sun-drying, smoking frying and occasionally fermentation.

Fawole and Etejere, (1989), opined that preservation by use of low temperature are used to retard chemical reaction and action of food enzymes and slow down or stop the growth and activity of micro organism in food. The lower the temperature, the slower will be chemical reactions, enzymes actions and microbial growth, a low temperature will prevent the growth of any micro organism. Some micro organisms will be killed by ice crystal disruption of cell membrane but freezing does not always destroy or prevent microbial spoiling of fish, thus leading to a reduced acceptability of the presented fish and consequently a reduced profit.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

According to Frazier and Westhott, (2004), the number of micro organisms on the skin of fish can be influenced by the method of catching, for example, trawling fish net along the bottom sediment for long period, result in exposure of the fish to high bacterial counts in the disturbed bottom sediment and this can be reflected in the initial microbial load on the fish.

Frazier and Westhott, (2004), also reported that aseptic methods to reduce contamination of sea foods are difficult to apply but some of the gross contamination before processing can be avoided by general clearing and sanitation of boats, holds, bins or other containers and processing equipment in the plant and by the use of ice of good bacteriological quality.

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This present work will cover the removal of soil from contaminating surfaces and from the fish by adequate clearing methods, which includes effective detergent solutions, it helps greatly to reduce the microbial load on the fish.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to examine micro organisms associated with the palms of fish handlers. Specifically since fish is extensively used in homes, restaurants and hotels, it is therefore, very essential that microbial contamination of fish and its handlers should be greatly reduced in transportation, storage, production and marketing.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

At the successful completion of this study one would understand that fishes infected with micro organisms are available in the market hence, contaminating the palms of fish handlers.

Therefore, the microbiological safety of the fish handlers and consumers need to be assured.

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Fish is a good source of protein. It can be contaminated with natural flora of water bodies, bacteria and fungi and consumption of infected fish affect human health, meanwhile the micro-organisms associated with the palms of fish handlers in Oko, Orumba North L.G.A of Anambra state will be examined.

————- this is an incomplete article ———– it’s a product of a high quality project researched work.

Project topic. MICRO ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PALMS OF FISH HANDLERS IN OKO, ORUMBA: NORTH L.G.A ANAMBRA STATE

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