The Poverty Alleviation Programme In Nigeria,A Case Study Of Ani nri Local Government Area.

The Poverty Alleviation  Programme In Nigeria,A Case Study Of Ani nri Local Government Area.

Abstract

This research was carried out to examine poverty alleviation programmes in Aninri Local Government Area. The objective of the research is to analyze the level, nature and extent of poverty in Aninri Local Government Area Viz-a-viz programmes implemented over the years to alleviate poverty in the council.

In order to arrive at an accurate comprehensive conclusion to all analysis involved, the buferma approach in his work on poverty alleviation programmes and strategies was adopted. hence, this research propose to make use of data derived from questionnaires and his historical  data and similar studies. therefore, primary and secondary source of data was employed. the survey methods used were interview and questionnaire while the population of the  study consist of inhabitants of  Aninri L.G.A and the sample size was determine using the yamani formaular.

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This study  found that millions of Nigerians especially in rural areas suffer from poverty . In Aninri Local Government Area, the preponderance of the people are found poor. This study also found out that though most people are aware that poverty alleviation programmes of different designs have been funded and  supposedly implemented  on their behalf, people still search hard to  find tangible evidence to show for so much resource spent and so many years spent on such programmes.

In conclusion, this research furnishes recommendation based on actual findings. It recommended that poverty alleviation programme should be given adequate and sustained funding thus creating the necessary conducive atmosphere for effective implementation. Also ,  government and development agencies should re-stragize in order to reposition service delivery as regards poverty alleviation programme implementation while monitoring of projects at all stages of implementation and engaging in innovative programmes that will make loans,  equipment and agricultural input easier to be access by the poor  was recommended  to be combine with re-adjusted service delivery and effective implementation strategies to ensures programme success.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background And Need For The Study

There has never been a time in human history when the issue of poverty and poverty alleviation has received as much attention from nations and governments the world over as it is now. The reasons for this are obvious, it is a universally acknowledged fact that no nation can claim to be developed if the majority of its people are poor.

The level of poverty in Nigeria today is difficult to imagine. The Nigeria economy itself has over the years Transverse through a series of reforms that aim at improving the health of the economy. The economy however remains a toddler, struggling to find a sense of direction.

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Low level of physical development, virtual absence of technological development, poor infrastructural facilities and generally poor standard of a living of the people all combine to make Nigeria a poor country. Nigeria present a paradox. The country is rich but the people are poor. It is a complex story with a clear message. In terms of material and human resources, however, Nigeria is ironically clearly one of the most richly endowed nations of the world. Nigeria has a large agricultural resource for which less than 5 percent is being exploited.

The country remains poor for the simple fact that its people are unable to transform the rich resource into much needed good and services.

A research conducted by GLOBAL ISSUES INTERNATION on poverty in Nigeria high-lighted the evident fact that poverty manifests in different areas in Nigeria as is portrayed by the situation in their communities. The research observed trends in four different types of communities as in observable in Nigeria viz:

Poor communities, Low income communities, Middle income communities and Non-poor communities.

The study revealed that poverty in Nigeria occurs in poor communities at a very high level where the majority of

households are deeply impoverished to the extent that average expenditure of the households in those communities was below poverty line (one dollar per day).

The study also found out that at low income communities, the minority of households is below the poverty line but the average per capita income spread all over the whole community is below the national median level.

It was also indicated in the research findings that poverty is also experienced in Nigeria is middle income communities where minority of the households were poor and the average per capita  expenditure of those households in the communities was above the national median level. In non-poor communities all households included in the survey had per capita expenditure above the national median income level.

The relevance of that study to Nigeria, Enugu state and the topic of this project  work,  is  that  the research found  that in northern Nigeria, 70% of the poor reside in 36% of the

communities classified as poor communities. In the north-central zone   (middle-belt area of Nigeria) 61% of the poor communities. However, in the southern part of Nigeria, only 9% of the communities were classified as poor communities and 38% of the poor people in a southern Nigeria reside in those poor communities. The relative distribution of extreme poverty has an evident preponderance in the core North.

Aninri Local Government is in the south-east of Enugu  state and falls under the area where extreme or absolute poverty is less felt, that does not in any way suggest that poverty is absent from or less present in Aninri Local Government. Far from it, it merely gives a relative measure that poverty is worse among the common impoverished people of the North.

To address poverty in Aninri Local Government, measures, policies and  programmes have been put in placed by successive  administrations and regimes to eliminate, curb,   reduce  or  alleviate  poverty.   All  those  programmes

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shared one essential element in common. The aim to elevate people from below the poverty line to a relatively better opportune level or standard of living. And because government is a vehicle of the people all poverty alleviation programs in Aninri Local Government Area have the people as the focus.

It is against this background that this study is set to examine the nature and dimension of poverty in Aninri Local Government and the poverty alleviation programmes and strategies employed over the years to address the issue.

1.2     Statement Of The Problem

Given the magnitude, the spread and the percentage of the poor as estimated by the federal office of statistics indicate that the poverty situation in Aninri is pathetic. (About 90,200 Aninrians representing 70.79 percent of the population was poor in 2009 using the income and expenditure measured). The perverseness of poverty in the midst of plenty in Aninri, clearly demonstrate that poverty in Aninri has become a socio-economic scourge of our time, a perilous maladies afflicting and threatening the dignity and existence of Aninrians several poverty alleviation programmes have been extended in order to address this problem, yet the problem defies solution.

1.3     Objectives Of The Study

The objectives of the study are

  1. To determine the level, dimension and various manifestation of poverty in Aninri local government.
  2. To examine the design focus and key component of the various poverty alleviation programmes implemented in Aninri local government.
  3. To evaluate programme implementation strategies and determine their effectives of otherwise.
  4. To find out factors that militate against the effectiveness of poverty alleviation programmes in Aninri local government.

1.4     Theoretical Foundation Of The Study

The study is based on the theory of vicious cycle of poverty by Zurekas (1976:32). This theory state that poverty perpetuate in a cyclic manner in developing countries. According to the theory, the major causes of poverty in a  developing countries is low saving rate. Low saving rates lead to low levels of investment. That in turn, leads to low levels of productivity and income. As productivity and income fall, total demand also falls.

The fall in total demand leads to low standard of living. Moreover, as income falls, the saving rate falls; continues to perpetuate itself in this vicious cycle.

The theory suggest that the main springs of growth and development are increases in quality and quantity of resources of all states are poor because they lack resources

or willingness and ability   to utilize them efficiently. Efficient utilization of human resources in a society, community or state depends on the introduction of programmes or implementation of policies that will improve the quantity and quality of existing resources, ensures equitable income distribution and provide for the basic needs of the people adequately.

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Therefore, to alleviation poverty in Aninri Local Government Area, the government should appropriately address the fundamental problems involved, such as unemployment, inflation, low income, low savings and investment levels; as well as inadequacy of social services and infrastructure.

1.5     Research Questions

The following questions were formulated for the purposes of the study:

  1. What is the level of poverty in Aninri Local Government area?
  2. What is the design, focus and key components of various poverty alleviation programe in Aninri Local Government Area?
  3. How effective are the implementation strategies of poverty alleviation extended to Aninri Local Government Area?
  4. What factors militate against the effectiveness of the poverty alleviation programme?

1.6     Significance Of Study

The study will be use to policy makers in Nigeria generally and Aninri local government council in particular. The study will established whether the purpose of the different poverty alleviation strategies by the government has makes any positive change.

The findings of the study will also benefit the rural dwellers themselves, it will high-light the different poverty alleviation strategies and programmes of the government and the role expected of them as end beneficiaries.

The academic community generally will benefit from the result of this study as it will add to the study of literature already existing on the subject.

1.7     Scope Of The Study

The scope of this study covers the nature and level of poverty in Aninri local government area, the various poverty alleviation propgrammes in the state and the effectiveness, success or otherwise of such programmes.

1.8     Limitations Of The Study

The research is however limited by non-comprehensive nature of secondary data and the economic and time constraint of carrying out the research.

1.9     Definition Of Terms And Acronyms

Poverty: This refers to lack of physical necessities, asset and income. Living below poverty line: defined by the word banks as an average of living below us dollar per days N145 approximately.

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