The Poverty Eradication Programme In Nigeria

The Poverty Eradication Programme In Nigeria (An Assessment Of Napep 2005-2015)   

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

The Poverty Eradication Programme in Nigeria (An Assessment of the NAPEP 2005-2015) has been a subject of protected debate amongst different scholars.

In respect of the generated debates different scholars and opinion leaders have tried to analyse and document facts to this effect. 

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Poverty Eradication Programme now know as National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) is the brain child of Obasanjo led government.

He introduced this programmes during his administration to better the lots of many Nigerians who where wallowing in object poverty since independence in 1960.

The problem of poverty in Nigeria has become our outstanding one; this is traceable to political unrest occasioned by intermitted military intervention in Nigeria since after independence.

Many Nigeria had died of hunger and its associated problem such as sickness and disease which would have been prevented had it been that enough alleviate measures were in place to cushion the effects of poverty.

In other to curb this social clan problem thereby, bridging the gap between the rich and poor that then Obasanjo administration fashioned out this programme.

THE POVERTY ERADICATION PROGRAMME (PEP)

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

For two decades after independence (1960s-1970s) employment and poverty were not a National concern in Nigeria, as it is today, these days the Nations agricultural industries and their building public sector were not able to effectively absorb most of the labour force thereby causing unemployment.

The agriculture sector for example, generated about 70% of the nations employment opportunities and accounted for about 80% of the gross domestic product (GDP) with discovery of petroleum in the mid 70’s the economy was further strengthened as it grows at an average of over 11% government during this period were able to achieve much through oil revenue.

The insuring political instability and inconsistencies in the socio-economic policies of successive government emerged a major factor that led to the manifestation of high level of joblessness in Nigeria. In brief, the employment and poverty trends in Nigeria indicated that without a concerted effort to handle the problem of unemployment, the situation could get worse the low growth experienced in most sector and particularly, the manufacturing and agricultural sectors has undermine employment growth.

In 1999, the Obasanjo led administration introduced the programme to curb out the virus of poverty out of lives of numerous Nigeria who have not know what it means to be economically standardized since the nation got her independence in 1960.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Poverty in Nigeria is pervasive phenomenon characterized by low levels of income and social deprivation.

The National Burean of Statistics (2013) reports over 73.6 percent Nigerians are poor woman, children and the elderly are the worst hit many people in the country even in the urban centres lack access to clean source of water ensuring adequate sanitation has become problematic as refuge dump litter major streets. Health care facilities are not adequately provided and people still die of preventable disease. Many primary and secondary education are still in dilapidated state inspite of the federal government benevolence of free primary and secondary education enrollment is still low when compared with other country in this world.

According tot Chukwu (2012) physical infrastructure such ass read, portable water and electricity and social service such as education, health recreation and security are not adequately provided. Mortality rate is still high woman still engage in hard labour to fend for the children and complement the family income. The lack of infrastructure facilities and the degrading condition of life in most rural communities has resulted to increasing migration/ inflow of people into the capital city thus leading to congestion and attendant urban problem like unemployment, increasing house rents and general high cost of living, amidst low level of income.

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Some several policies and programme established to address the problem of poverty in the country have done little. An important objective of NAPEP is to help eradicate extreme poverty by the year 2010, in line with the United Nation Millennium Development Goals (MCDs) of halving the proportion of people living in poverty by the year 2015. Inspite of the huge sum of money and other resources invested in the crusade of kpoverty eradication programmes in Nigeria. Majority of Nigerians especially in the rural community still suffer from absolute poverty

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. To what extent has NAPEP curbed poverty in Nigeria?
  2. To what extent has NAPEP empowered Nigerian youths?
  3. To what extent has Nigerian youths benefited from the implementation of NAPEP?
    • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study is designed towards critical examination of poverty eradication programme, so the purpose of these study is to analyses the objective and how it affect the lives of Nigerians.

  1. To find out to extent to which NAPEP has curbed poverty in Nigeria.
  2. To find out the extent to which NAPEP has empowered Nigerian youths.
  3. To find out the extent to which Nigerian youths have benefited from the implementation of NAPEP in Nigeria.
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The research will be of immense benefit to implementation of government programmes in Nigeria as well as researchers and student who will need literature for their thesis. If will be of interest also to the general public including communities and youths for whom the programme was meant to serve.

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research is mainly on the National Poverty Eradication Programme in Nigeria using NAPEP 2005-2015 as an assessment.

If focuses on knowing the impacts and architect of the programme as well as the programme objectives. It also focuses on the likely problem that are militating against the programme and the mapped out strategies.

  • LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Being a programme that has lasted for years, I had difficulties in assessing materials in this areas also combining this research work with my classroom work was very demand financial constraints to a large extent, also affected the way this work many have be carried out.

Finally the secondary data used in this work cannot be qualitatively guaranteed by me as they were compiled by different bodies with regards to the primary data.

Some respondent many not return their questionnaires while some may be damaged in the process.

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS

POVERTY ERADICATION: This is a process of limiting poverty for the betterment of the people or populace. It also a process of eliminating penury to increase standard of living of the masses. This is done to bridge the gap between the rich poor to eschew social clams crises.

MILITARY INTERVENTION: This entail seizure of power or over throw of government by Khakimens, that is to say military taken over the mantle of leadership by the civilian. It also referred as coup d’ etert in the military parlance.

Military rule could be triggered off through gross maladministration such as corruption ethnicity, Nepotism, tribalism and inordinate ambition of soldiers etc.

POLITICAL INSTABILITY (UNREST): It depicts as situation of political uncertainty. This is where the political nature of a country is flexible.

  • ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one contains introduction which is subdivided into

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the study
  • Objective of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Limitation of the study
  • Definition of terms
  • Organization of the study
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Chapter two contains literature review subdivided into theoretical and empirical literature. Chapter three discussions the research methodology. Chapter four dwells on data analysis, interpretation of results and chapter five talks about summary of finding, conclusion and policy recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1          INTRODUCTION

                Poverty Eradication Programme (PEP) is an invention of the former government under Obasanjo to eradicate the menace of poverty, which since independence till date has been a bad spot in the lives of many Nigerians.

This scourge that is called poverty is worse than aids scourge in the sense that it destroys humanerable number of lives silently on day to day bases.

Ibezin (1990: 76-76) viewed poverty from two different perspective moneylessness and powerlessness. The Author went further to explain that moneylessness does not only mean insufficiency of each but chronic inadequacy of resources of all types, to satisfy such basic care.

Another distinction is between the concept of relative and absolute poverty (Encyclopedia America International Volume 22, 1980: 45) said that relative poverty is that which constitute poverty at one time and place and does not in another, others maintained that human need ought he interpreted as absolute and that the poor comprises of only those lacking adequate resources for a given consumption level.

Therefore under-developed or third world countries are absolutely poor because they cannot live above the subsistence level. They lack the indices of development in the same vein.

AGARNALA and SINGH YEAR QUOTED MALTHAS saying that inferior mode of living caused as well as consequence of poverty and is unquestionable true that wealth produces wealth the greatest of all difficulties in converting uncivilized and thirty populated countries into civilized and populace one is to sensitize or mobilize them with the wants best calculated to excel their exertion in the production of wealth. He also stressed the causes of poverty as follows: –

  1. Low rate of capital accumulation
  2. Income distribution
  • Negative/non-challant attitude to work.
  1. Activities of colonial waster.
  2. The bulk of population in development countries.

Okonkwo (1999:76) seer rural development programme of the government such as National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) DFRRI Operation Feed the Nation (OFN) Green Revolution, PEAP etc as revenue through which the railing elites or class perpetuate the exploitation of the rural dwellers.

He further stated that philosophy, the DFRRI programme for example reconfigures this important factor but operation of the system did not do what the decree establishing DFRRI said.

However, an explanation for their involvement of the people is basically for selfish and myopic economic gain to the DFRRI officials. This really explains the relevance of in completed and shady jobs done by the DFRRI in our rural communities.

Okonkwo (1999: 76-77) postulated that certain basic principles should serve as a guide for attainment of goals. He out lined the principles as planned programme peoples participation, financial institutions, public accountability, self reliance and multi-dimensional approach.

According to Ikeonyibe (1999:26) the concept of social and economic development outlined the natured and scope of socio-economic development section 14(1) (2) (6) of the 1999 constitution of the federation government of Nigeria reconfirms what is the fundamental obligation of any government.

Section 14(1) asserts that “the Federal Republic of Nigeria shall be state based on the principle of democracy and social justice” also in section 14(2)(6) assert that the security and welfare of people shall be the primary aim of government.

Therefore all the function of government whether at the federal, state, local government level or with the context of any government ministry, department agency prostates or co-operation are went to be general towards ensuring national development.

  1. THE POVERTY ERADICATION PROGRAMME IN NIGERIA (NAPEP 2005-2015)

Poverty eradication programme is an invention of federal government of Nigeria to tackle the problem of poverty which constitutes a very serious threat to the well being of greater Nigerians. It is pertinent therefore, to begin with the impact of this programme by looking at the level of involvement by different stakeholders to the programme.

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The stakeholders to the programme are the under listed.

  1. The national council on poverty eradication programme
  2. The state committee on poverty eradication programme.
  3. The local government on poverty eradication programme.
  4. The above mention are the instruments which the government employed to institute and execute the poverty eradication.

It is vital at this point in time for us to look at the level of programme implementation within rural areas in state committee on poverty eradication programme.

This committee was formed at the state level to eschew over centralization of authority and thereby remove unnecessary bureaucracy that can impede successful programme delivery the composition of the state committee is as follows.

Controller federal ministry of work and housing NYSC Director, member of Federal pay offices member of National Directors for Employment State (NDE) co-ordinator, members of state chairman of the Nigeria labour congress, two representatives of the state government, federal inspectors of education. Head of field monitoring unit, federal ministry of environment one woman leader and federal health minister.

The function of state community includes approval of the recruitment of the participants and general supervision of exercise at local government.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE

                The implementation committee of Poverty Eradication Programme, constitutes of the following agent at the local government level. The agent of the committee include the representative of the federal ministry of works chairman the district head of the local government council tow religions leaders a councilor representing the local government two woman leader, one of which must be teacher or any other person the state committee way appoint to be a member provided the person so appointed is from the local government council concerned.

The local government council committee is responsible for the identification of the state committee and also provides on the job supervision during the process of programme implementation.

  1. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT FOR PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION

The multi-sectional nature of the proposal for effective networking of the stakeholder therefore for effective implementation and proper coordination of the poverty eradication programme globally, the following factor has to been considered.

Implementation agencies which has been discussed above.

  • Publicity
  • Recruitment and registration
  • Counseling
  • Participation assistance in security permanent employment.
  1. Publicity: This should be carried out on radio and other mass media at the federal state and local government level, to sensitize the populance on opportunities. Available under the poverty eradication programme of the federal government of Nigerian, as well as attract private and public participation in the programme.

The Poverty Eradication Programme In Nigeria (An Assessment Of Napep 2005-2015)   

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