Population Census And National Development In Nigeria

Population Census And National Development In Nigeria: A Study Of The 2006 Population Census In Anambra State.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Census in Nigeria is nothing to write home about, from colonial era to 2006 various governments and agencies have tried their best to prefer solution to the problems of census on Nigeria without success factors responsible range  from collection of data, illiteracy and poor accessibility to remote area, inadequate professional expertise etc. It has failed due tot out environment that is controlled by corruption. Since census figure is used as a basis for parliamentary

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Hence the crux of the research work is to make a critical analysis on the 2006 population census, problems and impact, prospects to the growth and development of Nigeria using the National population commission as a case study. Population census could be traced back to colonial Nigeria in 505 when the first census was conducted in 1962/1963 but there was a lot of criticisms surrounding the outcome of the result some people have to cancel it and another proposed in 1963. A Census Board was set up under the authority of the prime minister to handle the 1963 population census, the census figure out the population of Nigeria as 55,653,821. The break down gave the regions the following figures, Northern Region with 29,777,968, Eastern Region with 12,388,646, Western Region with 10,298,500, Mid-West Region with 2,533,337 and Lagos with 675,852. Similarly, these figures were criticized and it usually generated a lot of controversy. However, it was accepted by the federal government, so also the Northern and Western regions the eastern and mid-western regions neglected the figures outright claiming that they were inflated and characterized by gross irregularities and inadequacies. Eastern region went to the Supreme Court challenging the authenticity and the federal government’s acceptance of the results. The court ruled in favour of the federal government; stating that eastern region: did not have a focus standing to sue on the issues. These figure, therefore remained the official figures used as base figures for projections to all developmental matters. Constituency, delimitations, allocation of seats to the parliament’s boundary adjustment etc.

After civil war 1967-1970 another attempt was results to conduct census in 1973 but the results were cancelled in the face of represented controversy. No subsequent nationwide census had been held in 1990, although there have been various attempts to derive population estimates which was based on projection from the previous years. In 1996, 88,514,501 were recorded as the total census figures with minimal success.

The 2006 census was hallmark of census in Nigeria which recorded a total figure of 140,431,76 the total number of males was 71,345,488 and female 69,086,302. This shows that number of male outnumbered the females with an additional 2,259,186. The female only outnumbered the males in 4 out of 36 states of Nigeria such as Ebonyi, Enugu, Ogun, and Plateau states.

  • Statement of the Problem

Census in Nigeria has been affected by various factors which have hindered sustainable growth and development. The vehicle of a credible census count has been blind with corruption of which has eaten deep into the roots and fabries of our clear country, Nigeria and rendered it impotent.

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Moreso, our country Nigeria has been characterized by political tension of varying degrees with respect to census over the years.

Enumerators have to be dishonest to themselves and the nation at large due to fatherism incipience religions etc.

Furthermore, Nigeria has shunned the excursuses due to their tradition and believes ignorance, poverty, as well as illiteracy.

  • Research Questions
  1. To what extend has the population censuses contributed to National Development in Nigeria?
  2. To what extent can the problem of population census be ameliorated in Nigeria?
  3. To what extent does the national population commission work in accordance with the census laws in Nigeria?
    • Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research work is to assess the following;

  1. To find out the impact of population census on national development in Nigeria.
  2. To find out the extent census problems in Nigeria have been ameliorated.
  3. To evaluate the extent the population commission works in accordance with census laws in Nigeria.
    • Significance of the Study

Over the years, significant number of people shun the census exercise due to ignorance, not knowing that the aims is to ascertain the right population for the purpose of improving their living condition.

Hence, there is need for the Nigerian people to provide accurate answer to the question brought to them by the enumerators, this will enable the government to plan attentively for her citizenry.

Finally, this study is put forward in order to educate and bore in mind of the people on the need to assist the national population commission in order to achieve the policy on population.

Also to advice the national population census on the need to increase the number of enumerators in order to reach those remote areas which they have neglected over the years.

  • Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the Population Census and National Development in Nigeria and it’s implication to the growth and development of the country, National Population Commission as case study.

  • Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered numerous problems in the course of this project which includes, finance, time, materials and language problem for instance, the researcher is administering questionnaires to people who have different linage identity, more so, money to travel around to distribute the questionnaire to wide respondent was a serious problem due to economic meltdown, this also made me not to retrieve the 200 questionnaire, distributed for the study. Time also is a laminating factors because my final year exam is around the corner and I need to get prepared on time.

  • Definition of Terms

Population: Refers to an aggregate of individual defined with reference to geographical local political status and similar specific conditions.

Demographic: Is a field of study which involves the population structure and topography over a given period of time.

Growth: Refer to an irreversible increase in size that accompanied by development of national population.

Commission: Is a statutory body established in 1988 with power to collect analyses and disseminate population/demography data in Nigeria.

Development: Is the rationales process of organizing and carrying out prudently conceive and staffed programmer policy as one would and carryout militating, engineering.

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Enumerator: Refers to those officials who carry out the census exercise in the state.

Population explosion: It involving a rapid increase in Nations Population Offer associated with the first several decades of industrialization.

Population Census: Is defined as the actual head count of all those living in a country of a given time, usually every 10 years.

  • Organization of the Study

The study was organized in five chapters; chapter one introduced the study by giving the background information on the research which will also contain statement of the research problem, research questions and purposes of the study, significance of the study, the scope of the study, the limitation  encountered in the course of the work, definition of terms and organization of the study. Chapter two (2) will review related literatures in the study context, this will enable the researcher to know

what and what that had been done by other writers as regards to the study, this same chapter will also present the theoretical framework. Chapter three (3) will contain the methodology for the work, survey design will be adopted so as to enable the researcher to generalize the result of the findings. Sampling technique will be adopted for selecting the sample size from the population while structured questionnaires will be used as instrument for data collection. Chapter four (4) will contain the presentation and analysis of the data collected with the questionnaire and finally, chapter five (5) will contain the conclusion, summary and some programmatic recommendations made by the researcher.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1          Literature Review

                In this chapter, the researcher tries to review scholarly perspective by reviewing books, publications, journals on population census, its implication to growth of Nigeria, thus the following area with be treated under these sub-heading:-

  1. Population theory
  2. The reason for conducting population census
  3. Effect of rapid population growth
  4. Factors affecting population growth
  5. Problems of collecting population data
  6. The policy on population data

2.1.1   Population Theory

                According to Kot (1989: 267) population increases in a geometrical ration, where as food supply increases in an arithmetic ratio. This disharmony would lead to widespread poverty and starvation, which would only be checked by natural occurrences such as disease, high infant mortality, famine, war or moral restraint. His main contribution is in the agricultural sector.

According to this theory there are two steps to control the population: preventative and positive checks. Preventative means control in birth rate, and uses of different methods to control birth and positive checks means natural calamities war etc.

2.1.2 The Reasons for Conducting Population Census

According to Tawah (1975: 25) population census is carried out in order to: –

  1. To know the numbers of people in geographical entity of the country.
  2. To aid the government plans embracing all sectors of the economy.
  3. Employment opportunities and control:- The number of employed people could easily be known by the government through population census and this makes it possible for the government opportunities to generate and control.
  4. To distribute the nation’s wealth among different parts of the country based on the population size.
  5. Government Revenue: Through population census the government will be able to know the number of taxable adult and this will help in no small measure in the estimation of the expected revenue for a particular period.
  6. To aid the formulation of policies towards population growth.
  7. Housing: Government would be able to know whether the houses available are enough for the population.
  8. To aid the formulation of policies towards migration.
  9. Labour Availability: Population growth rate determines the level of labour supply.
  10. It forms the basis for parliamentary representation as well as the importation of goods and services.
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2.1.3    Effect of Rapid Population Growth

                According to Ogunwa (2003:112) rapid population growth has strenuous attest on the provision maintenance and life span of various infrastructural services for the sustenance of life. It not planned and controlled will lead to the inability of government communities or individuals to provide adequate facilities and service for the population

2.1.4 Factors Affecting Population Growth

According to Williams (2004:253) the size of countries population can either grow or decline as a result of some factors.

  1. Birth rate or Natality rate:

Natality rate is the rate at which new individuals are added to a particular population by reproduction (Birth of young ones or hatching of eggs or germination of seeds/spores). It is generally expressed as number of births per 1,000 individuals of a population per year.

‘Absolute’, ‘physiological or maximum natality’, raters to the theoretical maximum production of new individuals under ideal conditions. But it is never realized because of environmental resistance (factors like inter and intra specific competitions, availability of food, space etc).

‘Actual birth rate’ being achieved under existing conditions, which is much lesser than ‘absolute natality is called realized natality. Higher realized natality rate increases the population size and population density.

  1. Death or Mortality rate:

Mortality rate is the rate at which the individuals die or get killed. It is the opposite of natality rate. Mortality rate is generally expressed as number of deaths per 1,000 individuals of a population per year.

Lowest death rate for a given species in most favorable conditions is called potential mortality while the actual death rate being observed in existing conditions is called realized mortality. Realized mortality decreases the population size and population density.

The percentage ratio of natality over mortality expressed in percentage is called vital index.

Vital index            =              Natality rate             x          100

Mortality rate

Vital index determines the normal rate of growth of a population.

Differences between natality rate and mortality rate.

Population Census And National Development In Nigeria

 

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