THE EFFECT OF HUMAN RELATION IN SOLVING ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA INSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING

THE EFFECT OF HUMAN RELATION IN SOLVING ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA INSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING.

ABSTRACT

Reducting organizational conflict has been the sole problem of management. Different means are applied and stilling progress to reduce it. The effect of human relation in solving organizational conflict in Nigeria is the relationship between management and subordinates. The literature review facilitates the concept of human relations general conditions necessary for effective good human relation, causes of conflict and conflict resolution. Moreover, this study will use the population of about 2,546 workers of which 500 workers were sampling out using a sample random sampling techniques. Furthermore, questionnaire and personal observation were used in obtaining the information for analysis. The study of higher learning it was established in 1981 through the constructive effort of the community. It is located in Orumba North Local Government Area in Anambra state. The institution comprises of Academic, Non-academic and junior staff.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Management is a process of allocating an organizations input resources through proper planning, organizing, directing and controlling for producing output and accomplishment of organizational objectives. Management is also the process of getting things done through people.

At the heart of this process is the relationship between the workers (employees) and the employers and the community, and it is at this stage where human relations enters into the picture.

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Modgetta (1994:3) defines human relations as a process by which management brings workers into contract with the organization in such a way that the objective of both the organization and the individual employee or workers are achieved. The organization is concerned with such objectives as good pay, adequate and good working conditions and a chance to interact with other personnel and the opportunity to do interesting and meaningful work.

Human relation then is concerned with four major areas which are:

  1. The individual worker
  2. The group
  • The environment in which the work is performed
  1. The leader that is responsible for seeing that everything is done properly, and in the right way.
  2. Right from the phrase “let there be and there was” good relations had played and is still playing a vital and active role in any organizational cycle. Every organization bases her efficiently and effectiveness on good human relations. Most management uses two-third (2/3) of their daily working hour trying to mutually communicate with others to influence their behavior for the upliftment of the organization. No organization can survive without effectively affecting its good structure of human relationship. A key responsibility of management is to ensure efficiency. Oshorn (1998:18) says that the effective use of good human relation in any organization allows it to resolve conflicts and create a conducive environment for growth, goals, attainment and effective utilization of its resources to achieve its targeted objective.

Conflict has always been a coy in the wheel of development and have also constituted a serious threat in effective management in federal polytechnic Oko. It was once describe by a writer as dating entrapment if proper attention is not given to it in due time would lead to the total collapse of an organization.

Management of organizations are normally and faced with two types of conflicts:

  1. Functional conflict
  2. Dysfunctional conflict

Functional Conflict: This involves the confrontation between groups that enhances and benefits the organizational performance and growth e.g line and staff conflict. Although the functioning of this group which includes the specialized staff and here structure staff had been clearly define and specified, yet conflict often arises.

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Dysfunctional Conflicts: It involves the confrontation or interaction behaviours within group that hinders the achievement of organizational goals often and sometimes conflicts with individual goals of its employee and such clash of interest if not properly managed it generates a lot of problems in the organization.

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Conflict in organization has continued to be issue in organization both in developed and developing nations like Nigeria. The pandemic has also attached the concern of many scholars and big players in various society and organization.

Federal polytechnic Oko is not left out, the institution has had its own four share of such conflict. In every organization, organizational goals often and sometimes conflict with individual goals of its employee and such clash of interest if not properly addressed or managed generate a lot of problems for the organization. Federal polytechnic Oko that is a federal institution is made up of various cadre of employee is both academic and non-academic staff. Collectively conflict arises within this group either collectively or individually this lead to the organization stunt in growth and possible derailment from achieving this stated objective.

Attempts has been made by various scholar and writer to explain why such conflict arises within an organization, the causes, reasons and possible solution to such problem but only a hand full have given a concerning explanation because factor that brings conflict in one society differ from what might or may bring about conflict in another. The high rate of conflict in organization prompted this research work. The researcher tends to investigate the reasons and causes of conflict within an organization and if possible, make available possible solution in solving such problem.

The background of this study is focused in federal polytechnic Oko which is an institution established in 1981, initially the institution was approved by the Anambra state government as a college of art and science in 1979. Later in 1980 it was up graded to a college of arts, science and technology in June, before it was finally formalized as Anambra state polytechnic Oko through the edict No 12 of 1985, by 1993 the federal government took over the school and it is today known as federal polytechnic, Oko located in Orumba North L.G.A on a land mass covering 35.03 hectares of land

Federal polytechnic, Oko have within its different rank and file working within it. The institution is an educational institution and research work will cover between (2005-2010).

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The Important of good human relation in any organization and especially institution cannot be over emphasized. The realization of institutional objective depends much on the nature of personal and interpersonal relationship existing in the institution. The problem, which emanates from such situation are poor job performance, un-conducive working environment or atmosphere which  hinder good judgement and common sense of handling issues and above all, loss of good which are those things that necessitate  the researcher to focused mainly on some categories of staff which includes the academic and administrative staff of the institution. This is to enable  the researcher to identify the effect of good human relations in the institution and possible way of resolving conflict.

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study is to enable the researcher to examine the factors that result to conflict in the institution, and to investigate the degree to which lack of good human system contributes to the development of conflict within the institution.

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The researcher also hope to evaluate the problem that hinders effective human relations in federal polytechnic, Oko as an institution and understanding the employees obstacles of effective human relations in the institution, finally to determine the possibility of maintaining a hood human relation between management and employees in the organization using effective human communication as a viable working tool and recommending ways of rectifying conflict through effective human relations system in the institution and ways of preventing future occurrences.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance or important of the research work is that this study until also help to and be a guide to future research work. It is said that to read is to acquire knowledge therefore, to embark on the research of this nature is to come out with the solution of solving the problem. There is a proverb which says “identifying a problem is a step to its solution”, this study will also help to improve employee’s moral and encourages more employers to have a good human relationship system.

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. In which ways would the involvement of subordinate in the decision making process by management help reduce conflict?
  2. Can a well-instructed channel of communication help in reducing management and worker conflict in the institution?
  3. Can building of mutual trust and respect among management and subordinate and further appreciation of their individual ability help in reducing organizational conflict?
  4. To what extent do you think inter-department deployment will help reduces if not eliminate conflict that hinders the growth of the institution?
    • THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Conflict management theory

We raised the most important questions in this article: is moderate conflict desirable? Is too little conflict as dysfunctional as too much? And should leaders, at times, promote conflict to attain organizational goal? Our tentative answers to these questions are no, no and no.

Wall and Callister’s approach to handling conflict is inconsistent with the recognition of scholar who suggest that organizational conflict has both functional and dysfunctional outcomes (Jehn, 1995; Mitroff, 1998; Pelled. Eisenhardt, I xin 1999).

Eisenhardt, Kathwajy, and Bourgenois (1998) suggested that conflict  top management is inevitable and it is usually valuable conflict at senior levels surrounding appropriate paths of action. What may be termed “substantive” cognitive or issue. Oriented conflict is essential for effective strategic choice”.

Therefore, it is our conclusion that wall and Callister’s approach to minimizing conflict fall within the realm of conflict resolution which involves reduction, or termination of conflict. This amounts to throwing out the baby with the bath water.

Several conflict management scholars (Amason, 1996; John, Northcraf & Neale, 1999, Rahim 2008) have suggested that conflict management strategies involve recognition of the following:

  1. Certain types of conflicts which may have negative effect on individual and group performance may have to be reduced. These conflicts are generally caused by the negative reactions of organizational members (e.g personal attacks of group members, racial disharmony, sexual harassment).
  2. Organizational members while interacting with each other will be required to deal with their disagreements constructively. This calls for learning how to use different conflict-handling styles to deal with various situation effectively.
    • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work concerns organization and its focused on how good human relation system could help reduce conflict in an organization. Since the scope to cover is wide and due to lack of finance and time the study will limited to federal polytechnic, Oko since, it is a public organization. The study will also restrict itself to ascertain how frequent conflict in institution can be reduced through effective human relation.

  • LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
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In the course of this study the researcher encounters many impediments and challenges as follows:

Time constraints: Time constraint is one of the major factor that limits this course of study mean while, the researcher faced many activities coupled with her course of study.

Financial constraint: The researcher as a student was financially constraint in the sense that she found it difficult to meet up with some needs.

Non-Challant Attitude: Of the respondents towards the questionnaire was also one of the factors that limited the research.

Some wrong information and fear of giving information among the respondents was also a difficult factor in achieving the research work target.

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  1. Conflict: This can be defined as a service disagreement or an argument, a fight, struggle, and may be a difference of opinion between people or individual.
  2. Grape vine: This is an informal means of passing information or news from one person to another.
  3. Subordinates: These are people in the lower organizational hierarchy known as junior workers or staff, they are in the control of a superior.
  4. Motivation: This is the inner dine which prompts people to act in a certain way.
  5. Management: It refers to group of people or individuals on the higher organization hierarchy that controls the activities of the people below:

Spirit de Corp: Loyalty and other feeling uniting a group or member of a group

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