The Effects Of Television Violence On Adults

The Effects Of Television Violence On Adults(A Case Study Of Aguata Local Government Area

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This topic has become very essential on the violent behavior often exhibited by most youths in the society. is a great relationship between the amount of television viewing and various indices of fear, the more one watch violent television the more one estimate the amount of violent in real world.

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The introduction of television violence resulted to increase incidents of crime and other violent acts such as armed robbery, rape, secret cults, fighting with dangerous weapons tec. Not minding the various negative effects of television violence in our society.

These will remain a lot of positive impacts which television inculcate in our adults. They become aware that these weapons are very dangerous to handle like knife, gun, and poisonous gases. The youths know the harmful effect of taking dangerous drugs through the viewing of these televisions that were able to expose their effect.

In general, this is evidence that violent films on television viewing related to feeling of danger which is practicalized in real life. There is no means of any kind is determined to the youth, there is no means of inculcating on the youth the negative effect that through television exhibition.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Many research works have been carried out, many on effect of television violence on children and youth and let me say that children of yesterday years are the adults of today. This has necessitated the study on  the influence of television on the adult.

It is quite untrue to believe that it is youth alone that get influence easily as a result of watching the violent acts. Do we have to believe that the youths who are effected negatively at several times doe’s television violence do have influence on adulthood?

There are areas of special interest in this project. Besides there is no doubt that there are other channels, where violent behaviors could be learnt. But television is one of the arms of mass media whose function are to enrich, entertain, inform, influence and educate the general public. According to “Dr Harris Paulis” (1967) at instance of directing violent television programmes aimed that the viewers can affect him or her irrespective of age. This is because television which combines the visual sense of sight and sound maintain the strongest hold on the human mind.

Amos said that psychologists, sociologist and other social engineers are to conceal that modern man increasily losing his retention ability and psychoactive to all parading influence of television. Many people view exposure to violence as the means of making our children, youths and adults aggressive. They believe that consist exposure to violence. Some still look at violence does not exhibit increase or decrease.

John R Bitner named such exposure as “re-enforcement” Re-enforcement theory maintains that watching violent acts will only help reinforce the amount of violence behavior that is in someone.

Television station transmits entertainment and recreational programmes to amuse the audience. This is usually in frictional stories full of violent, crimes such as armed robbery film (Rattle snake) murder.

  • STATEMENT OF THE STUDY

Television as we know, transmit the cultural social orientation and life of given society. This indicates that once our youth watch television they become more exposed to the entire cultural and social sentiency for which the television portray in a situation like this.

The issue remains that the prospective as they internalizing all those practices as they view them. This being the case, their moral cultural and social background becomes subverted, psychologically, youth emulate bad attitude quickly.

The problem now is that so many youth and young stars are founded of watching blue films, war film etc and the result is that they choose to practice the violent acts after watching them, it is now becoming a thing of serious concern that so many youths out of what they learn from violent television should grow up to become armed robbers, social deviants and what have you.

Another equally serious problem is that even though other variables can be controlled, these are still the fact that youths attention s glued to television show. Once this happens, the tendency is that other activities to be performed by youth suffer greatly as they are sacrifices for television viewing the researcher investigated whether juvenile delinquencies can be attributed strickily to viewing televised violence.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
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It is reasonable to adult that when human beings are involved in doing a particular thing should be a complete sense in what they are doing.

Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find out how adult are affected by television violence and the various ways to amend or combat it, adverse influence via data or solution from the respondent.

Further more, it will seek to high light some poor attitudes by adults arising from violent television. It is hoped to establish how various programmes on television really influence adults’ behavioral patterns and life styles in Aguata local government area of Anambra state.

Finally, it will measure how effective the television is moulding the live of adults in the society.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Every broadcast on the television is aimed at either educating, information or entertaining. It must aimed at creating one impact or the other.

There are numerous problems facing our country as to effect of television violence on our screen. Again are those television violence really are the cause of the violent acts in our society today?

The significant of the study cannot be over emphasized. It is important to the individual, organization, government and the society in general. Television station should acquaint themselves with the feeling of the people through and be able to take care of what ever adverse effect television violence constitute to adult society.

It is expected that the study shall significantly enhance academic or schools activities, as the study shall be a reference point to the other research work.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION

The interest of this research work is to find out the effects of television violence on adults, how are they affected and what should be done to amend the situation.

These are the questions

  1. Does television violence play any role in the violent behavior of our adults?
  2. To what extent television violent solely responsible for the violent behavior in our adults?
  3. Are adults exposed to television violence more violent than adult exposed to any other violence?

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

For clarity purpose, this study shall dwell only on the favorite that makes up Aguata.

  1. Ekwulobia
  2. Mkpologwu
  3. Uga
  4. Akpo
  5. Umuchu
  6. Achina
  7. Amaesi

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

EFFECTS:This means the result or outcome of an action

TELEVISION VIOLENCE:  According to Newcomb (1979) violence    on the television is an over expression of physical force against self or another person, with the intent to compel action against one’s will on pain of being hurt or killed.

VIOLENCE:Violence is an instance of physical force usually intended to inflict injuries.

VIOLENT:Is the using of force to cover and accomplish something.

ADULTS:Person grown to maturity in Nigeria      content between the age of 18 and above

                               CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

WHAT IS TELEVISION VIOLENCE

This chapter attempt to link the study with the existing works field of study. The researcher reviewed a myriad of related terms and literatures having direct relevance to the topic.

Television violence is notoriously hard to define and measure. Some experts who track violence in television programming such as the late George Gerbner, defined violence as the act (or threat) of injuring or killing someone, independent of the method used or the surrounding context.

Franklin Fearino in his book media (1984) observed how people behave in a wide variety  of situation how they are provided with a pattern of behavior which he may reject or accept. One is free to make a choice on media contents and pattern of behavior on the effect of television he says:

“The experiences which the individual obtains through the media of drama presentation in his various  forms provide him with interpretative frame of reference. These either re-affirms the norms of his culture or group of reveal previously unsuspected and possibly contracting alternative of these norms”

In addition, Himmelweit and Vince, the effect of mass communication, (1960) in the course of their elaborate study of Britain youths and Britain television found out in reference to related topic that adults who had no  other sources of information about a matter in hand and did not have previous knowledge on the subject can be influenced. Thus television apparently influence the adult except on how wealthy people lived”.

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Schramm, Lyle and Paker, Television in the times of our children (1961) stated that; “For some children under some conditions, television programmes that are harmful, for other adult under some condition, it may be beneficial but for. Most conditions, most television programmes is probably neither harmful nor particularly beneficial.

It is not surprising therefore that much attention is given to the possible negative effectives of media should center on television.

In the same vein, Lince and Brown, the effect of mass communication, 1960 reported that the family context called  influence whether adult selected aggressive or non-aggressive concept to conflict situation arising from a violent television programmes.

This submission is premised on two distraction perspective. One is that there is likely to be aggressive or non-aggressive behavior toward a situation of adult which they must have imbibed via television programme.

The other submission is hanged on the family, the parents precisely, who may or may not allows their wards to watch violent television programme or get engrossed with it.

Available literature on the effect of violent television programme on adults is scanty. However, those one that have direct television were reviewed. Lipman on the paper presented on the media and society suggested that the pictures in our heads are mainly constructed from the pictures in our heads are mainly constructed from the pictures we get from the mass media.

Also, in trying to investigate how specific media content can lead to the realities. Lipman often referred to the media as “enculturation instrument”. This submission is typically based on how television programmes can influence our perception on norms and values through selective presentation and emphasizing certain themes.

Stroman Carolyn in similar study examined televisions’ role in the social development of children. He concluded that television is a significant player in the socialization (cognitive and social learning) of children with positive and negative aspect. He opined that television as a medium of communication has a remarkably influence over children behavior. He explained that there abounds relationship between television viewing and academic achievement. While on the other hand, television has been found to be destroying children’s developing symbolic processes and in habiting their creativity and play. Moreover, it is possible to hypothesis linkage between television viewing and numerous social problems involving children and adults.

A study of Rhimer Pauline in 1983 on similar topic showed that watching violent films on television is likely to increase stress on children. It showed that it increased anger and aggression on children as well as their intensity to violent responses.

A study report published by the National Institute of mental Health (NIMH) showed that many viewers, especially the children are influenced towards fear and apprehension. However, it is believed that every child who behaves violently has observed and internalized unbelievable questions of violent. By means of television, children see the entire plane. They are influenced by violent programmes that glorify killing and other violent acts.

Barrister Oduah F.M a mass communication lecturer of Federal Polytechnic Oko, opined that an individual childhood experienced determines to a great extent, his adult personality and as much is accountable for his behavioural patterns and action in this adult life.

Tony Olukoya in this study on “Effect of television on Nigeria kid’s (1982) traced violent traits on children on expose to violent films. According to him, these children often pose on how to throw punches, upper handle guns, make love, practice marital art stance. These traits are manifested on children at the least act of provocation in real life, after having been exposed television violence.

HISTORY OF TELEVISION VIOLENCE

One of the earliest pieces of literature is the Epic of Gilgamesh, early Sumerian versions of which date back as far as 2000BCE or so (Hallo and Simpson, 1971). This tale follows the legend of the Sumerian king Gilgamesh who, like the king Arthur legends later, appears to have been based loosely on a historical figure. Gilgamesh, according to the tale, is a powerful and harsh ruler who, among other things, forces new brides to have sex with him on their wedding night. The gods send a wild-man, Enkidu, to pester Gilgamesh in punishment, and ultimately the two fight violently, ending in something of a draw. The two men become friends and Enkidu acts as a positive influence on Gilgamesh, softening his more vicious instincts. They proceed a battle demons, tangle with Ishtar, the cruel goddess of love and war whose sexual advances Gilgamesh declines, and search for the secrets of immortality. The story is life with unapologetic violence and sexual themes. Gilgamesh is perhaps the best known of the early Sumerian legends that have survived, but themes of heroic adventure, violence, sex, rape, and cruelty are not uncommon among other Sumerian stories (Hallo and Simpson, 1971). Exactly what the Sumerian people thought of these violent stories is not well known, but their survival alone gives testament to their popularity. Things, for the media, have arguably not changed very much since the time of Gilgamesh.

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The twentieth century saw an unprecedented explosion of mass media. Prior to the late 1800s, the only form of mass media was literature. Before 1439 with the invention of the printing press, even literature was expensive and difficult to come by. The “average” person through most of history largely had to get by with music and oral storytelling or live action media such as plays or even gladiatorial combats. One might argue that “mass media” at times experienced a little flourish, such as during the proliferation of theaters in Greek civilization, or Coliseum games in Rome. Yet it is safe to say that mass media, in the sense that we have come to know it today, is comparatively modern phenomenon.

Nonetheless, modern mass media differ from its historical antecedents more with regard to technology than in content. Across history and across cultures, the stories which people have used to entertain one another, whether written or oral were saturated with violent and sexual themes, sometimes unapologetically cover­ing topics such as rape or incest that might seem taboo in modern Western society (Trend, 2007). This chapter concerns itself with the history of violent media. It is sometimes insinuated that modern culture is unusually awash with violent entertainment. In evaluating the modem sociology of media violence and societal reactions to it, it is helpful to understand the history of such phenomena. This chapter is designed to help the reader understand trends in media and mass media consumption through human history.

THE EFFECT OF TELEVISION VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN

Violence is defined in English Oxford dictionary as a violent behavior that is intended to hurt or kill somebody.

Judging from the above definition of violence:

  • Does T.V violence affect children?
  • To what extent does it affect them?
  • How can children know that they are watching a violent T.V programme?
  • How can the negative effect of T.V violence be curbed?

Children learn a lot from what they see especially what they see on television and in real life, they cannot say what is right or wrong, they do all the see.

Some studies have shown that T.v programme location and other children T.v programmes contain violence more than adult programmes. As they watch violent shows, children learn to internalize scripts that use violence as an appropriate method of problem solving.

The Effects Of Television Violence On Adults(A Case Study Of Aguata Local Government Area

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