The Role Of Television Advertising In The Marketing Of G.S.M Services In Enugu State (A Case Study Of Globacom G.S.M)
This research work is a very important study for Globacom G.S.M. services. The study was motivated by the necessity to find out the role of television advertising in the marketing of G.S.M services in Enugu State. The network came into existence in the year 2003 and has been popularly known and used by millions of people. Even those using other net-works want to have Globacom network. TO PLACE AN ORDER FOR THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL, pay N3, 000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK ACCOUNT NAME: OKEKE CHARLES OBINNA ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3108050531 After payment, text the name of the project, email address and your
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TO PLACE AN ORDER FOR THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL, pay N3, 000 to:
BANK NAME: FIRST BANK
ACCOUNT NAME: OKEKE CHARLES OBINNA
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3108050531
After payment, text the name of the project, email address and your names to 08064502337
To solve the research problem, the researchers went further to collect both primary and secondary data. The instrument used in collecting the data is oral interview. The respondents comprised of the staff and customers of Globacom G.S.M.
In organizing and discussing of data collected, tables were used and the following finding were made:
- The promotional activities of Globacom impacted positively on the customers’ patronage.
- Globacom customers get to know about its services mostly through television advertising.
- The promotional activities of Globacom G.S.M attracted customer attention.
- The staff Globacom testified that the promotional activities impacted a lot on the profit of the company.
Based on the findings, we therefore recommend that other communication companies should try and embark on promotional activities like Globacom did and it worked for them. This shows that unless you let people know that “you can..,” they will assume “you cannot…”
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Globacom is a G.S.M service owned by a Nigerian citizen (Mike Adenuga). The company came into Nigeria in the years 2003 and it started it operations first in Lagos with few subscribers, but now Globacom is popularly known all over the country.
The establishment of business including the marketing of G.S.M. services requires that the firms should make key decision. These decisions affect the total marketing programmes of the firm by using marketing techniques. However, one vital area of such decisions which demand proper attention is the promotional techniques. Marketing of G.S.M. service must initiate promotional policies and programmes to inform, persuade and educate its target audience of the existence of the organizations and the products. Although creation of demand for a firm’s product maybe the ultimate objective of the company’s marketing promotions, this objectives is never achieved at one fell swoop.
The firm must put in place a set of activities aimed at stimulating demand for their products or services. This may involve determination of the optional combination of the promotional mix: advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, publicity/public relation, direct marketing, and packaging to achieve its promotional objectives. This optional blend is a function of the product just to mention but few.
Adrika, Ebue and Nnolim (1996:36), see promotion as the component used by organization to inform, educate and persuade the market regarding the companies offerings, advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity and public relation are the major variables of promotion. promotion is a vital ingredient of survival and development; without adequate promotion product may not sell where they sell, their continuity is in doubt, because if you don’t say this is where you are, nobody will say it for you. The art and science of marketing promotion which has to do with advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relation and direct marketing are often associated with glamour and flamboyance. Infact most of the budgets of some companies are spent on promotion because of the need to survive in the competitive marketing environment. According to Onah and Nnolim (1988:19), decisions with these components of promotional mix should be consistent with the other variables in order to accomplish the objectives of any given organization.
Edoga and Ani (2000:243) noted that marketing success does not just depend on good product, good price and efficient distribution. It is also vital that organization communicate its offerings, advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity and direct marketing can be used to inform prospective buyers about the benefit they will derive by using the product.
Modern marketing companies are increasingly recognizing the value of an effective communication and promotion programmes for the public, this includes marketing of G.S.M. services.
Ebue noted that modern marketing does not stop at developing good products, pricing it attractively and making it ready and available to target customers. The company must communicate to its target audience, tell good stories, dissemination of information about the products existence, feature terms and benefit to the target market.
Copper J. (1972:201), confirm that the promotional tools serve as supreme vehicle in competition and provide the only way a marketer can hope to penetrate an established market. He went further to state that for a company to excel above their competitors in the competitive market, such company must value the importance of promotion.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Inadequate sales are often given by entrepreneurs as major cause of their failure. A careful review of their circumstances often reveals abnormal ignorance of the need for promotional skill or deliberate neglect of the necessity for coordinated promotional strategies.
Quite often, manufacturers and/or service providers are very optimistic about sales (patronage), some conceive the wrong nation that their goods will sell themselves forgetting that even the best of products/services will still need to be stimulated in order to penetrate the market and move out of stores. Infact, the creation of effective promotional strategies is an essential move towards creating a market.
The above statement applies to operators of Globacom G.S.M. service. The use of coordinated and effective promo-tools in its operations is quite excellent and is positively impacting on their operation.
Many people especially those that are not literate are now aware of their services and its advantages. It is in the light of the importance attached to promotion that the researchers seek to find out the role television advertising have played to improve performance of the organization.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are as follows:
- To determine the effectives of promotional techniques of Globacom GSM service.
- To determine the impact of advertising in creating consumers awareness of Globacom GSM services in Enugu metropolis.
- To determine the impact of personal selling on customer patronage of Globacom GSM in Enugu metropolis.
- To determine the impact of direct marketing on customers patronage of Globacom GSM services in Enugu Metropolis.
- To appraise the promotional techniques adopted for Globacom GSM in Enugu state in increased profitability.
- To recommend appropriate solution on the promotional techniques used in the marketing of GSM service in Enugu metropolis.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- How informed are customers about Globacom GSm services?
- Do promotional activities of GSM create positive impact on customers’ patronage?
- What are the services performances in the market?
- Do promotional activities of Globacom attract customers’ attention?
- DO promotional activities of Globacom increase sales?
- Do promotional activities of Globacom services impact positively on the profit of the organization?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This is not mere academic exercise. It will be significance to the following:
Firstly, marketing firms in GSM services will gain immensely from the study as it will express the impact of promotions on the performance of their services and suggest more success oriented ways of enhancing the promotional impact.
Secondly, operator of Globacom GSM will gain immensely from the study. This is because t will not only measure the effectiveness of each of the promotional mix variables on the performance of Gobacom GSM but also recommendation or measures to be taken in desiring and determining the right combinations of the promotion in a more result and profit oriented manner will be made.
Finally, both the researchers and the readers will benefit from the study as the information contained would wilden their scope of understanding and knowledge in the area of study which will stir up further investigation.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will examine the role of television advertising in the marketing of GSM services. It will only cover Globacm GSM service in Enugu metropolis because of limited time and other constraints.
1.7 RESEARCH METHOD
The instrument used for this study is oral interview. In additions to this the researchers also went further to meet with the operators and officials of Globacom with a view to having personal discussion with them.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Promotional strategy: It is controlled integrated programme of communication method and material designed to present a company to prospective customer (Ebue 2000).
- Advertising: It is a paid non-personal form of communication through a mass media concerning an idea of a product or service to compare action in accordance with the import and an identifiable sponsor.
- Televising Advertising: It is the fastest growing advertising medium which has the ability to combine many of the functions performed individually by other media. (Adrika, Ebue and Nnolim 1996).
- Sales promotion: Public relation, the deliberate planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its public. (Edoga and Ani 2001).
- Personal Selling: It is face to face interaction with one or more prospective buyers for the purpose of making presentation answering questions and producing orders (Adrika 1998).
- REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 MEANING MARKETING PROMOTION
In the view of Ebue (2000:5, marketing promotions often referred to as marketing communication is one of the key marketing mix variables used by marketers of any marketing organization in formulating marketing strategy it embraces a variety of marketing activities whose primary roles is that of persuasive communication.
Explaining the relevance of promotion, Ebue (1995:1) noted that a company or an organization that builds a product or creates services and then sits back and wails for things to happen, usually discovers, that much does not happen. The firm needs to tell its story. He further stressed that after producing the best product, packaged it brilliantly, priced it rightly, distributed magnificently and positioned it to the best used of the customers, all these will amount to a mere exercise in futility if the target market or audience is unaware of the existence of the product. Ebue (1995:2) noted that modern marketing does not stop at developing a good product, pricing it attractively and making t readily available to the customers but must also communicate the target benefit and attributes among other to the target customers. Udegha (1999:218) states that the term promotion has its origin in a Latin word meaning “to move forward” he believed that the purpose of marketing promotion is to inform customers about the existence of new product or service, remind them of the continue availability of the old ones and to persuade then to buy these product or services on a long term basis
However, McCarthy and Peureal (1994:9) in the basis marketing see promotion or communication as the promotional activities made up of personal selling, advertising, public relations/ publicity and sales promotion.
2.2 OBJECTIVE OF PROMOTION
Objectives of promotion according to Adrika, Ebue and Nnolim (1996:143) are to:
- Increase sales
- Maintain or improve share
- Create a favourable climax for future sales
- Create of improve board recognition acceptance or existence
- Inform and educate the customers
Ebue (2003:33) states that promotion objectives depend on the state market and the stage of the product in the market. He went further to state that promotional effort into a multi-communication system to move the customer through a series o steps on increasing commitment and to action that many may come in for purchase.
2.3 COMPONENTS OF MARKETING PROMOTION
Crosier (1995:5), in the companion encyclopedia of marketing, identified the components of marketing promotion which include the following:
- Public Relations/Publicity
- Personal Selling
- Direct Marketing
- Sales Promotion
Subhash (1990:550), in his book strategic marketing” identified the components of the marketing promotion mix to include: advertising, personal selling sales promotion etc. he explained that promotion strategies are concerned with the planning implementation and control of persuasive communication with customers.
These strategies must be designed around one or more of nay combination strategies which must deal with issue of determining the role that each type of promotion will play in a particular situation. Baker (1996:355), explained that while a favourable trends in demand will apparently return or ones promotional investment, should not be over emphasized that maintaining sales under conditions stagnant or declining demand is equally and some times more important.
Baker (1996:355) noted that it happen that the most effective promotions are those which communicate hidden product qualities (purity, taste, durability, (benefit etc), which appeal to emotional buying motives.
Adrika, Ebue and Nnolim (1996:106), see advertising as an impersonal form of communication or presentation of goods, ideas, or services conducted through paid media under or identified sponsorship. They went further to state that advertising is all about a sponsor sending a message, called advertisement through one or more mass media (television, radio, newspaper etc) to reach large numbers of potential user or buyers of a product or service.
Baker (1996:50), the American marketing association defined advertising as any aid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor
It is important to not that this definition is certainly a very sufficient statement and merit some elaboration and it is this which distinguish it from publicity. It is non personal in the sense that advertising messages; it is non spoken or written are directed at a mass audience, and not directly at the individual as in the case of personal selling.
Adrika, Ebue and Nnolim (1996:107) stated that most advertisement are designed to make both personal selling and sales promotion easier by informing persuading reminding, reassuring reinforcing and establishing positive attitudes and images towards product and a company. They went further to say that advertising enhances the potential customers’ response to company’s activates.
However, advertising on its own interact with both the other promotion mix variables, and the other marketing concerns including product development and research.
2.5 ADVERTISING MEDIA
According to Adrika, Ebue and Nnolim (1996:219), advertisers must choose from among the available media those that best suit their promotion al objectives. The description of each of the available alternatives follows
- Television Advertising
Television is an important development in the advertising world. It is the fastest growing advertising medium which makes it have the unique quality of combining many functions perform individually by other media. In addition, it excludes every other message or attraction at the point of exposure. This is because it combines vision and audio with movement, it has the power to arrest attraction.
Television advertising is a highly ubiquitous and lively medium that can reach a mass audience at a time by crating drama, suspense, colour and emotion. The television advert for example the Globacom advert that was displayed some time in June 2005, which attracted so many subscribers to Globacom network as a result of how interesting the advert was.
However, television audience is broad and varied by the time of day, but of course reaches almost everyone that has television set and electricity to power it.
The radio is a flexible medium that is highly varied from news items to all kinds of music and other entertainments. In radio advert, the audience depends on the station.
iii. Newspaper Advertising
Newspapers are the advertising medium that receives the largest percentage of a advertisements (they attract more advertisement than any other media). There are daily and weekly news papers that offer great national coverage and geographical flexibility to the advertiser.
Adrika, Ebue and Nnolim (1996:219) stated that newspapers advert reach specific target market especially local ones. They went ahead to say that newspapers provide broad information and entertainment, plus news of community activities. About 70% of all adults read newspapers. It has strong penetration power at relatively low cost false, misleading and deceptive claims
However, the daily use of newspaper and the short lead time for newspaper advertising make them ideal for quick insertion of special promotional messages.
- Magazines advertising
According to Adrika, Ebue and Nnolim (1996:220) the interest thing about magazines is their advertising. They have high geographic and demographic selectively. There are different magazines that appeal to different people. The reader is generally in a relaxed mood and receptive frame of mind. There are general readership and special audience. Magazines concentrate more in cities and have selective audiences which permit an advertiser to reach a special target audience at relatively low cost. (Most magazines address themselves to special audiences) “Women’s World” magazines should appeal mostly to women. “Tempo Football” magazines should appeal to footballers and footballer fans.
However, the advertiser should choose the particular magazines that appeal to the particular audience to be reached
2.6 SALES PROMOTION
Udegha (1999:226) said that sales promotion is very important element of marketing promotion. It comprises a variety of activities, material or incentive intended to generate immediate purchase action of the buyer or customer. According to American Marketing Association, sales promotion involves those marketing activities other than personal selling, advertising and publicity that stimulates convenience. it is a promotional tool that is intended to have a temporary effect on the buyer. These channels include: coupon, trade stamps premium, trade fair and exhibition.
Ebue and Udeagha (1999) sales promotion of goods and services are applies at every level in the distribution chain transfer products from their producers to the buyer.
2.7 PERSONAL SELLING
Udeagha (1999:227), says that personal selling is a process of canvassing for the sales of a company’s product or service by a salesman or woman, it is a dynamic process involving direct contact and the prospective buyers through oral or face to face or telephone discussion written mail exchange of ideas through opinion.
Discussing the importance of selling, Adrika (199:3) defined selling as the process of including and assisting a prospective buyer to buy or act favourably on an offering which has problem solving advantages to the buyer and commercial significance to the seller. Udegha (1999:228) noted that an issue that often confuses marketing students and even practitioners is the question as to when selling actually takes place. He believed that this question rear it’s head when selling is viewed as an exchange process and it interpreted to mean that no selling takes unless there is an exchange of something for something.
Adrika (1990:6) identified six (6) selling position which includes
- Delivery sales person
- Inside order taker
- Outside order take
- Missionary sales person
- Sales engineer
- Order getting good salesman
2.8 PUBLIC RELATION
In the view of stone (1999:9) public relations about managing the strategy and tactics of communication as integral part of a business policy making and is also about managing the reputation of a business.
Onah (1979)120) maintained that public relation is concerned with people at every level and at every place that engage upon total commercial undertaking. He pointed out the much of it deals with giving credit for achievement, breaking down barriers of prejudice and establishing an image which is a clear and correct impression of a organization, its policy and product.
Nwokoye (1984:212), defined public relations as the activities of a corporation, government or other organization in building and marketing sound and productive relations with special public such as customer, employers or stock holders and with the public at large so as to adapt itself to its environments and interprets itself society. From the above definitions one can understand that public relation is concerned with the welfare of the organization as well as that of its publics.
Nwokoye (1984:212), defined publicity as information about a company and it product that is conveyed to the public by the mass media because such information is news-worthy
Onyeke (1999:120) noted that an important thing that publicity has over advertising and some other promotional methods are that members of the audience believed publicity message very steady, since they know that it is not paid and dictated like advertising which many people simply interprets as “self praise”
- PROMOTIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR SERVICE MARKETING
Organization including service companies engages in promotions in order to create attention, interest, desire and actions. The promotion techniques involved is blending of promotional components life report with its public. This will enhance the attitude and behaviour of the public towards their companies and their service.
Companies including service companies should talk about their good deeds. If you don’t say “I am”, nobody say “you are”.
Adrika noted that companies including services companies should blow their trumpet-talk about their deeds. Most often service companies should blend these promotional mixes in order to achieve its promotional objectives. The mix should be integrated well with other marketing mix to achieve a synergistic result.
The Role Of Television Advertising In The Marketing Of G.S.M Services In Enugu State A Case Study Of Globacom G.S.M
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