The Role Of Segmentation In The Marketing Of Nigerian Bottling Company Soft Drink

The Role Of Segmentation In The Marketing Of Nigerian Bottling Company Soft Drink Products In Enugu Metropolis

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

            The term methodology is a system of explicit rules and procedure in which research is based and against which claims of knowledge are evaluated (Ojo, 2003:22). Therefore, this segment focuses on the research techniques adopted and used for this study. It comprises of the description of research design/method

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After payment, text the name of the project, email address and your names to 08064502337 of study, sources of data, population of the study, determination of the sample size, sampling technique selection and construction of research instrument, distribution of research instrument (questionnaires), and methods of data analysis

Research Design

After considering the problem and objectives of the study, descriptive design was chosen because it would provide answers to questions, such as who, what where, when, why and how as they are related to the role of  segmentation in the marketing of Nigeria Bottling Company soft drink products in Enugu metropolis. Typically answers to these questions are found in secondary source of data or by conducting surveys.

3.1       Sources of Data

The researcher uses both the primary and secondary data in the study.

3.1.1    Primary Sources of Data

The primary data are collected by the researchers through the use of structured questionnaire and oral interview. The researchers will follow a sequence of logical steps to develop a good questionnaire that would accomplish the research objectives. Questions would be formulated to obtain the need information and small sample of ten (10) post-graduate students would be used to test the questionnaire for omissions and ambiguity, before the actual test run.

3.1.2    Secondary Sources of Data

Published and unpublished data would be used. Published data will be sourced from various publications of trade journals, books, magazines, newspapers, soft-drink sales and exchange, reports prepared by research scholars and universities, international bodies and other subsidiary organization, public records and statistics, historical documents and other sources of published information unpublished data would be got from diaries, letters unpublished biographies and autobiographies trade associations and labour bureaus.

3.2       Population of the Study

For any researcher to collect information for any given research work, the researcher must specify the entire group that should embrace the information. The population to be used in this study covers 120 staff of the Nigerian Bottling Company Plc especially those in the marketing department and the selected consumers in Enugu metropolis. Enugu metropolis is divided into three local governments namely: Enugu North, Enugu South and Enugu East. The information regarding the marketing staff was obtained by the researchers from the company’s personnel department during one of their visits to the establishment at Nineth Mile, Ngwo in Enugu State.

However, because of the infinite nature of the population and also because of the inability of the researchers to lay hands on secondary sources of information regarding the population of the consuming public(s) in Enugu metropolis. Consequently, the sample for the study will be drawn from the infinite population.

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The population selected was designed to obtain adequate and diverse views pertaining to the level/extent of the role of segmentation in the marketing of Nigeria Bottling Company’ soft drink product in Enugu Metropolis.

3.3       Determination of Sample Size

The sample size is very necessary for a clear understanding of the population in question. In this study, the researchers adopted two different methods in determining the sample size for this study.

Firstly, giving the total population of marketing staff of Nigeria bottling company Plc to be 120, the researchers adopted a statistical formular known as the Bourley’s rule for finite population (Yamane, 1972:723). The formular is stated below as follows:

n =     N

1 + Ne2

Where,              n = sample size required

N = total population which is given

e = error margin

i = constant

: .n=        N

1 + Ne2

n=       120

1 + 120 (0.5)2

120

n=       1 + 120 (0.0025)

120

1 + 0.3

n =      120

1.3

n =       92

Therefore, the sample size for the marketing staff is 92

However, because of its large scope the researchers finds it very difficult to determine the entire population (consumers) required for the study and a pre-testing method was adopted by the researcher in order to determine the sample size for the consumers in Enugu metropolis.

Pre-Testing

For this purpose, a total of 30 questionnaires are distributed randomly to the members of the consuming publics, out of which 24 proved positive 6 proved negative, with 5% level of significance.

Therefore,

n =      Z2pq

e2

Where, n = required sample size

p = percentage of positive responses

q = percentage of negative responses

z = no of standard deviation for the desired level of confidence.

e = z tolerable error 5%

z = 0.05

1-0.05=0.95 =0.4750 refer to normal distribution table

2

:. 0.4750 = 1.96

:. P = 24 x 100 = 80% 0r 0.8

30     1

 

q =    6 x 100 = 20% or 0.2

30    1

e = 5% level of significance = 0.05

n =         1.962 x 0.8 x0.2

0.052

n = 1.962 x 0.8 x 0.2

0.0025

n = 246

:.  Therefore, the sample size for the consuming publics in Enugu metropolis is 246.

3.4       Sampling Procedure

The simple random sampling technique would be adopted in determining the sample size for the staffs of Nigerian bottling company especially those in the marketing department. This is the appropriate sampling procedure for determining the sample size for the NBC staff.

While the stratified random sampling method was adopted for determining the sample size for the consumers. The above stated methods are the most fundamental method of probability sampling method. It gives every respondent in the population equal opportunity of being selected.

The sample size for both the staffs and the consumers were 92 and 246 respectively. This was distributed among the male respondent as well as the female respondents, it also cuts across age, marital status, educational qualification, etc.

3.5       Selection and Construction of Research Instrument

The researchers will make use of structured questionnaire. This will be designed in such a way to obtain relevant information from the respondents. The questions in the questionnaires will be framed and will revolve around the stated research question for this study. More importantly, the questionnaires will be cautiously prepared to ensure that the respondents will not be misunderstood. The questionnaire will contain two sections. Section ‘A’ will look at the personal data of respondents ranging from such variables like gender, marital status, age, educational qualification, position etc, while section ‘B’ would take care of respondents perception on the role segmentation in the marketing of Nigeria bottling company soft drink product in Enugu metropolis. The information would be elicited using four ratings ranging from agree, strongly agree, disagree and strongly disagree.

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3.6       Distribution of Research Instrument Questionnaire

The researchers will administer the questionnaires by themselves (self-administered questionnaires) on the sampled respondents from the Nigeria bottling company plc especially those in the marketing department and the selected consumers in Enugu metropolis. In addition, explanation would be made where necessary to respondents who needed certain clarification to ensure high percentage return.

The researcher will make repeated efforts to retrieve test instrument. The researchers will also embark on follow-up telephone calls to get respondents for collection of questionnaire.

3.7       Method of Data Analysis

In the course of this study, the entire questionnaire will be collected and analyzed based on simple percentage, frequency tables for easy deduction and inference/conclusion.

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

            In this chapter efforts will be directed towards the presentation and analysis of data which were collected from the field survey. In doing this, simple percentages and tables, were used at appropriate places to make the analysis very simple and understandable.

Furthermore, data presented here and analyzed subsequently were those considered relevant to the research questions formulated easier on in chapter one of the study.

Table 4.1 Allocation and return of questionnaire

Presented below are summaries of the allocation of set of questionnaires and the returns therefore.

Details No. Given out No. returned No not returned Percentage %
Staff 92 80

12

86.9%

13.1%

Total 92 80 12 100%
Consumer 246 200

46

81.3%

18.7%

Total 246 200 46 100%

Sources: Field survey, February, 2012

From the above table 4.1, it was found that out of a total of 92 questionnaires administered to the marketing staff of Nigerian Bottling Company Enugu Plant, a total of 80 questionnaires were duly completed and returned representing 86.9%, while a total of 12 questionnaires representing 13.1% were not returned.

Alternatively, out of a total of 246 questionnaires distributed to consumer in Enugu metropolis, a total 200 questionnaires representing 81.3% were duly completed and returned; while a total of 46 questionnaires representing 18.7% were not returned. The outcome of this development is that the distribution, completion and return of the questionnaires were represented enough to guarantee a quality result.

4.2       Analysis of Data

Analysis of data from marketing staff of Nigeria bottling company Plc.

Personal Data

Table 4.2.1 Respondent distribution based on Sex

Sex Frequency Percentage
Male 60 75%
Female 20 25%
Total 80 100%

Source: Field survey, February, 2012

From the above table 4.2.1, it was fund that 60 (75%) respondents are male staff, 20 (25%) respondent are female staff. Inference to be drawn here is that the male staff outnumbered that of their female counterparts.

Table 4.2.2 Respondent distribution based on martial status

Marital status Frequency Percentage
Married 45 56.25%
Single 25 31.25%
Divorced 10 12.5%
Total 80 100%

Source: Field survey, February, 2012            From the above table 4.2.2, it was found that 45 (56.25%) respondents are married, 25 (31.25%) are single, while 10 (12.5%) are divorced/separated. Data evidence show that majority of respondents are married staff.

Table 4.2.3. Respondent distribution according to Educational qualification

Educational Qualification Frequency Percentage
OND/NCE 20 25%
HND/BSc 50 62.5%
Other specify 10 12.5%
Total 80 100%

Source: Field survey, February, 2012

Summing up all responses in the above table, it was found that 20 (25%) are OND/NCE degree holders, 50 (62.5%) respondents are HND/Bsc degree holders, while 10 (12.5%) are those with other degrees not specified in the above table. Data evidence show that respondents are educated to varying degrees in education.

Table  4.2.4 Respondent distribution based on age.

Age Frequency Percentage
18-30 years 10 12.5%
31-45years 45 56.25%
46 and above 25 31.25%
Total 80 100%

Source: Field survey, February, 2012

While in the above table, it was revealed that 10 (12.5%) respondents falls between 18-30years old, 45 (56.25%) fall between 31-45 years while 25(31.25%) fall between 46 years and above. Data evidence shows that majority of respondents are between 31-45 years old.

Table 4.2.5 Respondent distribution based on income per annum.

Income level Frequency Percentage
High 10 12.5%
Middle 50 62.5%
Low 20 25%
Total 80 100%

Source: Field survey, February, 2012

From the above table, it was found that 10 (12.5%) respondents are high income earners 50 (62.5%) are middle income earners while 20 (25%) are low income earners. Inference to be drawn here is that majority of respondents are middle income earners.

Table 4.2.6: Respondent distribution based on Management level,

Management level Frequency Percentage
Top management 15 18.75%
Middle management 40 50%
Low management 25 31.25%
Total 80 100%

Source: Field survey, February, 2012

From the table, it was found that 15 (18.75%) respondent are top management 40 (50%) are middle management, while 25 (31.25%) are low management. Data evidence shows that majority of respondents are from middle management.

Table 4.2.7: Whether Nigerian Bottling Company Plc has a marketing department

 Option Frequency Percentages
Yes 80 100%
No
Total 80 100%

Source: Field survey, February, 2012

As can be seen from the above table, it was found that the entire respondents said yes they have a marketing department.

The Role Of Segmentation In The Marketing Of Nigerian Bottling Company Soft Drink

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