Jigsaw Technique On Students Reading Achievement In English Language

 The Effect Of Jigsaw Technique On Students Reading Achievement In English Language 

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

The secondary school level in Nigeria prepares a student for tertiary education and also to adapt positively in the society. This is to say that subjects, which the student learns at this level serve as a good foundation for his/her tertiary education.

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After payment, text the name of the project, email address and your names to 08064502337 One of such subjects is English Language, which is the Language used in teaching other subjects. Therefore, one could say that if students are adequately taught English Language, they may perform better in other subjects.

According to Onukaogu (2002), teaching and learning of English Language entails making sure that the learners learn the four language skills, which are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Adeniji and Omale (2010) pointed out that reading is the most vital of the four main language skills because students need good reading skill for acquiring knowledge and learning new information. In this regard, Fakeye and Amao (2013) see reading as the recognition of printed or written symbols which serve as stimuli for recall of meanings built up through the reader’s past experience. Okoro (2013) described reading as an important skill for academic success and for professional development. He further maintained that the main objective of English Language education at the secondary school level is to teach students to read English books and encourage them to keep up with global development.

However, Abdullahi (2010) observed that most students’ reading abilities are not good enough and this has led to poor performance in English Language and other subjects. Aina, Ogundele and Olanipekun (2013) reported that over the years, the reading comprehension skills of students at the secondary level has been below eighty percent criterion and this has led to a progressive deterioration in their public examinations. Orji (2013) assessed the reading achievement of male and female students in their public examinations and reported that though their performances are considerably low, male students’ reading achievement is a bit higher than those of the female. Adeniji and Omale (2010) noted that students in the urban areas where they are exposed to public libraries may read better than their counterparts in the rural areas.

This low level in students reading skills has become a major concern to researchers. For instance, Ofondu and Lawal (2011) reported that reading strategies are not taught at the secondary level. Therefore, it is difficult for students to apply those strategies to improve their reading abilities. Also, Amokeodo (2012) blame the use of traditional teaching strategies for lack of good grasp of basic skills in reading and writing. He further observed that a traditional classroom is one where the teacher sticks to the use of lecture method and most often dictates notes for students to copy thereby denying them the opportunity to learn collaboratively.

Many other researchers especially in education have made efforts to investigate appropriate reading strategies to help students to improve comprehension when they read. For instance, Abbas and Jafar (2012) criticized the traditional teaching strategy used in English Language classrooms and recommended cooperative learning strategies which would make students more active in the classroom. Kazemi (2012) noted that using new techniques or strategies especially the cooperative learning strategies in teaching English reading comprehension might improve reading skills in particular and enhance the learning of English in general. Adhami and Amir (2014) stated that cooperative learning is a teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Huang, Liao, Huang and Chen (2014) described cooperative learning as one which enables learners to work collaboratively. They further maintained that the Jigsaw technique could enable students learn cooperatively. Aronson introduced the Jigsaw technique in 1971 with the idea of introducing a cooperative classroom. Adams (2013) described the Jigsaw strategy as a cooperative learning technique that allows students to study on their own in small groups in a more relaxed atmosphere that enables them to see learning as fun under the guidance of a teacher. Novianti (2013) sees the Jigsaw technique as a learning model that consists of organizing students into small groups and giving every student in that group chance to apply their idea and explain subject matter to other members of the group. Oprayoon (2014) added that in a Jigsaw method, students work together on reading texts, getting feedback from each other, exchanging experiences and learning from one another in a relaxed atmosphere optimum for relieving of tension.

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Some researchers described the processes involved in using the Jigsaw technique. For instance, Kagan (1995) gave a practical example on how to use the Jigsaw technique in the classroom. The steps are:

First and foremost, the teacher in an English Language classroom can divide all the students in the class into different small groups, say five or six groups. These groups should be mixed with students of different gender, age, ethnicity and ability. For instance, bright students could be mixed with dull ones, younger students with older ones, male students with female ones and so on. Secondly, the teacher appoints one student from each group to be the leader of the group. He/she may appoint an older student in each group as the leader. Thirdly, the teacher divides the day’s lesson into five or six segments according to the number of groups which he/she has selected. For example: In an English Language class, the teacher may teach comprehension and summary passages by assigning a particular passage to a particular group to read and discuss amongst themselves what the passage is really talking about. For instance, passage (1) Telecommunication in Nigeria, (2) Printing and Publishing, (3) Slave Trade and so on. The students in group 1 may be given passage (1), those in group 2, passage (2) and so on. The teacher may also choose to assign the passages the way he/she chooses.

Furthermore, after the assigning of these passages to their respective groups, the teacher asks each group to go and study the passage and discuss it amongst themselves with the group leader as the head. The passage for each group is divided into sections according to the number of members of that group. Each group member studies his or her assigned section of the passage, after which a member from each group is chosen, usually the group leaders from each group to form another group called an “expert group”. These expert groups discuss the sections of the passage assigned to their respective groups to ensure that each group understands the passage very well. After this, the students in the expert group returns to their respective groups to discuss and ask questions to ensure that each person understands the entire passage studied by the group. It is in this scenery that Gocer (2010) opined that each student becomes both a learner and a teacher as well. During this exercise, the teacher goes from one group to the other making sure that the groups are not having difficulties in reading the passages or that the students are not quarrelling in their respective groups. At the end of the group discussion, the teacher selects all the group leaders from each group to rehearse amongst themselves what they have learnt from a particular passage in their respective groups. Each group will also be encouraged by the teacher to discuss the questions that come at the end of each passage amongst them making sure that each student in the group has understood what the passage is talking about.

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Finally, the teacher assembles the groups and discusses the passages with them after which he/she gives a quiz (questions from the passages) to each group according to the passage assigned to them to make the students realize that the reading sessions are not just for fun and games but really count. During the quiz, every student endeavours to achieve not only self-success but also the success of his/her group. This makes the Jigsaw technique an excellent cooperative learning technique.

Having looked at the operations and the descriptions of Jigsaw technique and how it can be used in the classroom, the researcher believes that although the Jigsaw technique may look very tedious and difficult to use in terms of time and procedure, it is an activity-based technique that can be used to make learners more active in the classroom and also improve their reading achievement in English Language.

Statement of the Problem

          Education is the bedrock of any successful society. In this regard, parents make effort to send their children to school so that they can become useful to the society. Apart from sending their children to school, most parents do not want their children to stop at the secondary school level but also to acquire higher education. These children need to get at least credit in English Language before they could gain admission into tertiary institutions. This is to say that even if the student gets credit in all the other subjects needed for his course of study but gets below a credit in English Language, he or she may not gain admission into any tertiary institution. This becomes a problem since many of these students get below credit in English Language in their Senior School Certificate Examinations and this has been a major source of concern to both their parents and teachers. Therefore the problem of the study is how the Jigsaw technique would affect students’ reading achievement in English Language.

Purpose of the Study

Generally, this research work is aimed at determining the effect of Jigsaw technique on students’ reading achievement in English Language.

In specific terms, this study aims at finding out:

  1. The differences in the mean achievement scores in pre-test and post-test of students’ taught reading passages in English Language with Jigsaw technique and those taught with conventional method.
  2. The differences in the mean achievement scores in pre-test and post-test of male and female students’ taught reading passages in English Language with Jigsaw technique.
  3. The differences in the mean achievement scores in pre-test and post-test of urban and rural students taught reading passages in English Language with Jigsaw technique.

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be of significance to teachers, students, curriculum planners and researchers in education.

The findings of this study will be beneficial to teachers since they will be provided with empirical data on the effectiveness of the Jigsaw technique and this would motivate them to adopt it in their teaching efforts so as to improve students reading skills.

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The findings of this study will also be beneficial to students since their teachers will teach them how to read comprehension passages in English Language using the Jigsaw technique. This will enable them acquire good reading skills and improve in their performance in English Language.

It is equally hoped that the findings of this study will provide curriculum planners with an empirical data on the effectiveness of the Jigsaw technique and this will motivate them to include it in the current curriculum and also develop instructional aid to facilitate its use in educational activities. This they can do, by organizing seminars and workshops where they would encourage teachers to use this technique.

Finally, this study will be of significance to researchers especially those concerned with curriculum studies by serving as a resource material on related studies.

Scope of the Study

This study is restricted to determining the effect of Jigsaw technique on students’ achievement in reading comprehension passages in English Language. Therefore, the study looked at only the aspect of reading English Language passages and does not cover other areas such as writing, speaking and listening in English Language. The researcher carried out the study in Junior Secondary School Two (JSS II) in Awka Education zone of Anambra State. Gender and location are the moderating variables.

Research Questions

To guide the study, the following research questions were raised:

  1. What are the differences in the mean achievement scores in pre-test and post-test of students’ taught reading passages in English Language with Jigsaw technique and those taught with conventional method?
  2. What are the differences in the mean achievement scores in pre-test and post-test of male and female students’ taught reading passages in English Language with Jigsaw technique?
  3. What are the differences in the mean achievement scores in pre-test and post-test of urban and rural students’ taught reading passages in English Language with Jigsaw technique?

Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores

of students taught reading passages in English Language with Jigsaw technique and those taught with conventional method.

  1. There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught reading passages in English Language with Jigsaw technique.
  2. There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students taught reading passages in English Language with Jigsaw technique.

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The Effect Of Jigsaw Technique On Students’ Reading Achievement in English Language 

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