Enhancing Teacher Education Through Entrepreneurship Education

 

Enhancing Teacher Education Through Entrepreneurship Education Implications For Job Opportunities In Aguata  LGA Of Anambra State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The term Entrepreneur was first used in the early 18th Century by an Irish man by name Cantillon who was then living in France. The term therefore is a French word. Entrepreneurship is a term used broadly in connection with the innovative modern. An industrial business leader has been described as the person who

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According to the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Entrepreneurship is a person who starts or organizes a commercial enterprise, especially one involving financial risk. The single functions which constitute Entrepreneurship are innovation. Whilst the business director is mostly engaged in managerial activities which are non-entrepreneurial, the emphasis must be placed on the ability to gain command of the combine resources in a new way which will be profitable. (Schumpeter 1995).

Teacher education simply of the training and retraining of teachers in the acquisition of skilled, knowledge through either governmental or non-governmental organized seminars, symposia, workshop, technical sessions etc. personal qualities characteristic of a good entrepreneur which teachers must possess include; careful consideration of the business before plunging into it, must got good leadership qualities, must be good manager of men and resources, confidence in ones capabilities, risk taking ability, good public relation skills, can turn threat to opportunities (NIM course module on Entrepreneurship SMPE104, 2010).

Identification has been mode of some of the small scale business in our environment as follows; plantain production, growing vegetables during the dry season, cane technology, backyard poultry  raising, portrait painting, writing books for publications, sign writing, raising, portrait painting, writing books for publications, sign writing,  raising of flowers, sand block/burnt brick making, rabbit raising, firewood supply, making brooms, operating a barbing salon, designing and making decorative pots, tailoring, bricklaying, electrical installation, tinkering, hunting and fishing, roadside mechanic, plumbing, car washing, photography, operating grating and grading machine etc.

Also some medium scale enterprises have been similarly identified as well. They include; palm kernel oil production, soap production, aqua-culture/fish farming, chalk making, bone meal production, ice block production, concrete block production, nylon production, grass-cutter rearing, garri production, cassava ships e.t.c (NIM course module on entrepreneurship SMPE 104,2010).

Imagine a graduate or some graduates of a school saying he/she has no job or cannot start doing a small scale business as a result of not learning/having a craft while in school. This causes unnecessary request of money from parents or sponsors by students and the eventual unsuccessful result. These factors all culminate into an alarming rate of crime in the society and particularly in the local Government Area.

The objective of the entrepreneurship in teacher education is hoped by the researcher to be beneficial to the students and teachers in Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State. These training when mastered by the trainee/teacher will now be gradually transferred or taught to the students. The students who in turn learn from the teachers will not only be self-employed or independent in future from unnecessary parental support will as well useful to the society at large. Hence the unemployed youth of the Local Government will also benefit through their colleagues who have gotten the skill(s).

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
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Teachers of these technical and vocational subjects when not well-trained in terms of schools attend, or even through seminar, conferences organized exert little or no entrepreneurial skills on their subjects (their students). Check out a teacher of physics not knowing how to connect a simple battery to light a bulb. Also consider a chemistry teacher not knowing acid, bases and salt by physical properties or differentiating between different cases. The case of an agricultural science teacher not knowing the different types of soil by identifying them texturally could be an instance.

The poor impact of technical and vocational knowledge to students at various stages of learning results to a great extent the rate of unemployment in our society particularly in Aguata Local Government Area. Imagine a graduate or some graduates of a school saying they have no job or cannot start having/learning a craft while in school. The case of unnecessary request of money from parents/sponsors by students, and the eventual unsuccessful result point out to this. These factors all culminate into an alarming rate of crime in the society.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The importance of the study is to make students and teachers aware of the various entrepreneurial opportunities/small scale business within their environs. The secondary schools involved include; Community Secondary School Oko, Community Secondary School Oraeri, Community Secondary School Isuofia, Amaokpala Boys Secondary School, Girl Secondary School Ekwulobia, Girls Secondary School  Uga, Seat of Wisdom Secondary School Ezira and Gaius Benton’s Secondary School Oko.

The chosen/selected schools will serve as centers for the hosting of seminars, conferences, symposia, technical sessions, in their various communities found in the Local Government. Awareness of the various small and medium scale businesses, common and practicable in our environment will also be another benefit derivable from the study.

It is hoped that by participation in seminars, conferences etc both the students and the teachers will gain adequately from the study.

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is delimited to all Secondary School Teachers in Aguata Local Government Area. The presence of banks, social centers, motor parks and markets attracts civil servants, teachers, non-Government Officials to this local Government Area.

The following research questions will also find some answers in the course of the study;

  1. What is entrepreneurship?
  2. What are the benefits of enhancing teacher education through entrepreneurship?
  • What are the effects of entrepreneurship in teacher education?
  1. How to improve entrepreneurship in teacher education as a way of enhancing job opportunities among youth?
    • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The objective of the work is to find out:

  1. The effects of entrepreneurship in teacher education
  2. The possible and effective ways of enhancing entrepreneurship in teacher education in Aguata Local government Area of Anambra State.
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
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The following research questions will guide the study:

  1. What is entrepreneurship?
  2. What are the benefits of enhancing the teacher education through entrepreneurship?
  • What are the effects of entrepreneurship in teacher education?
  1. How to improve entrepreneurship in teacher education as a way to enhancing job opportunities among youth in the Aguata Local Government Area?

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, works related to the present study were review. And the review was organized under the following sub-heading: The conceptual frame work, the theoretical frame work, review of empirical studies and summary of the relate literature.

2.1 THE CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK

The following concepts are reviewed: concept of entrepreneurship, concept of teacher education and concept of job opportunities.

Concept of entrepreneurship

Greg Watson (2010) sees entrepreneurship as more than simply starting a business. He defined entrepreneurship as a process through which individuals identify opportunities, allocate resources and create value. This creation of value is often through identification of unmet   needs of through the identification of opportunities for change. Entrepreneurial success is simply a function of the ability of a entrepreneur to see these opportunities in the market place, initiate change (or take advantage of change) and create value through solutions.

Frank Knight (1999) says it is about taking risk. He further said that the behaviour of an entrepreneur reflects a kind of person willing to put his or her career and financial security in the line and lake risks in the name of an idea, spending much time as well as capital on an uncertain venture. Knight classified three types of uncertainty.

  • Risk, which is measurable statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red, color ball from a far containing 5 red balls and 5 white balls)
  • Ambiguity, which is hard to measure statistically (such as the probability of drawing a 4 red balls from a containing 5 red ball but with an unknown number of white balls)
  • True uncertainty of knighting uncertainty, which is impossible to estimate or to predict statistically (such as the probability drawing a red ball from a far whose number of red balls is unknown as well as the number of other coloured balls).
  • Knight further maintained that the act of entrepreneurship are often associated with true uncertainty, particularly when it involves bringing something really loved to the world, whose market never exists, there is no guarantee that a market exist for a particular new player in the cola category.

Based on the description above, the researcher puts it that entrepreneurship is a process/act of being on entrepreneurship or an entrepreneur. An entrepreneur within an existing organization/farm is an entrepreneurship while the one who see “problems” and opportunities, then takes a bold step/action to identify the solution to those problems and the customers who will pay to have those problems solved. The problems could be social, political, economical, religious, academics and the solutions thereof must abide by the necessary ethics.

Concept of teacher education

Pestalozzi (1960), defines teacher education as the professional preparation of teachers, usually through formal course work and practice teaching in industrialized nation today are college or University   educated. The amount of preparatory training, however varies greatly world wide.

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Foe Def (2001) defines teacher education as the study of teaching and learning and its application to the education of people. Here teaching and learning of skills required for some one to be a teacher (trained/professional) is not just enough but apply same skills in the education of people to achieve the aims and objectives of education.

From the foregoing, the researcher is of the opinion that teacher education is the training and re-training of teachers towards the acquisition of necessary skills to deliver quality education to the people/students. This could take the form of regular or irregular programmes/courses organized by either government or non-governmental organization which may last for the period of at least 15 months and above.

Concept of job opportunities

Das (2006) defines job opportunities as a task or chores made possible as a result of combination of circumstances. This in a nutshell is what a science teacher can do and must do with entrepreneurial skills. The science teachers are not necessary to open schools or any business related to science but need to understand and acquire the basic entrepreneurial skills that will make them function effectively in the school setting.

Adeyemo, (2003) maintains that teaching science is a dynamic enterprise and so any teaching procedure center around three pivotal factors; the pupils (science students) , the factory is the school environment, the teachers are the managers/entrepreneurs of the resources using a specified the print (science curriculum) in science teaching enterprise. He further stated that the interactions among those three factors justified why the science teachers must possess requisite entrepreneurial skills that will facilitate transactions in the classroom business climate. This include; instruction skills and parsimony/economical skills.

The definition the chances/probabilities at one’s skills, craft, acquired expertise occurring at a particular point in time. This implies that are may have been infirmity or formally be preparing his/herself at the same time walking for the opportunity(ties). It is the alone that true job opportunity (self employment or entrepreneurship) has taken place.

Enhancing Teacher Education Through Entrepreneurship Education Implications For Job Opportunities In Aguata  LGA Of Anambra State

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