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The Effects of Poverty on the Academic Performance of Students in University

The Effects of Poverty on the Academic Performance of Students

Impact of Motivation on Staff overall Performance in the Civil Service

Causes and Consequences of Political Hooliganism in 2011 General Elections

 

The Effects of Poverty on the Academic Performance of Students in University

                                        

The Effects of Poverty on the Academic Performance of Students in University of Abuja    

                                                    CHAPTER ONE

                                                INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

Education is a process through which individual acquires skills, competencies, and attitude. It is the right of every child to be educated, be it traditional or western. Thus, education has been regarded as culture to man, people and the nation of the world at large. This explains why man has to educate himself and his offspring in the society. Poverty is one of the factors militating against man from carrying out his educational activities perfectly. Because of various perception and complexities of the term poverty, a universally agreed definition cannot be arrived at. Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary (2000), poverty is defined as “the state of being poor.”

Oguw (2005), sees poverty as “a way of life characterized by low calorie intake, inaccessibility of adequate health facilities, and low quality of education system, low life expectancy, unemployment and underdevelopment.” Leroy and Symes (2001) consider poverty as “a major anti-risk factors”. Relating the concept poverty to Nigeria, it is considered in a broader way which implies that it is viewed in various perspectives which impues national, state and home background. At the national level, a nation can be considered poor when her economic standard is very low and this automatically makes the nation underdeveloped. As regard poverty in the family level, it is referring to the home background. Even before the indigenous and western education, the home has always been the agency through which man

learns various aspect of life to enable him live a meaningful life in his environment.  The role of the home cannot be over emphasized because the general assumption that states of poverty in the family or home goes a long way to determine the extent of youth or students academic performance. Education is seen by many as the route to alleviate poverty. There is no doubt that meaningful education is the most potent instrument to alleviating and eventually abolishing poverty.

Furthermore, poverty in developing countries takes various forms including low nutritional status, low level of education, declining in spending on social services, high percentage of household income spent on food, high infant mortality rate and low life expectancy among others. The depth and severity of poverty according to Nyong (1999), is experienced more landless illiterates, those without regular jobs or other low income services. These groups of people tend to move in-and-out of unorganized causal and informal labor market.

Similarly, the incident of poverty increased sharply between 1980 and 1985 and between 1992 and 1996 in Nigeria. There is however a decrease in poverty level between 1985 and 1992. The figures were 27.3%, 46.3%, 42.7% and 65.6% of the Nigeria population wallowing in poverty as at 1980, 1985, 1992 and 1996 respectively. (FOS, 1999). It is believed that poverty should reduce with increasing education level, as low level of education is one of the visible characteristics of poor people in Nigeria strategies of government towards alleviating poverty were concentrated as mass literacy; therefore poverty is seen as one factor that affect the academic performance of students particularly undergraduates of University of Abuja.

In considering the effects of poverty on academic performance of students, the home background is the most important phenomenon that needs to be considered in order to enhance the effective study of the relationship between poverty and students academic performance. It is in view of this that this study attempts to investigate the effects of poverty on the academic performance of students in University of Abuja.

To educate in the etymological sense, is to induce or draw out of a learner (person) something (matter) through some precipitated action (teaching). Teaching, learning and matter are the three basic components of education. To educate is a deliberate attempt to direct a person; that is to educate an individual morally, physically and mentally so that such an individual become sensitive to individual education. A good fraction of the population is ignorant of what education entails and are easily carried away by the slogan of “free education”. (Omoyemi, 1995).

Education means more than just buying school uniforms and writing materials. It means caring for and nurturing that which is good in the individual and good training which must be purposeful. Formal education according to Nkobi, (1978) takes a tremendously important role when it is realized that children are forced by the demand of the future good, to stay in school from the age of 5-17 and above. Through these years of confinement, the home, teacher and the school each has a vital role to play in reshaping of the child to suite in the society he/she belongs. Thus, through education, the child aspires to the highest level he can go but if the child is from a low income earning home, there tend to be the problem of reading and coping with hunger, it could be informed of buying of books textbooks and handouts. (Omoyeni, 1995).

 

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

Academic performance of students in University of Abuja takes different forms which include: ability to critically analyze, productive reading, carrying out research work as well as practical involvement of science students. The performance of students in these areas is poor as this in return has done much harm to the development of the country at large. Since education is the life wire of every society. This amount to the reason why this study cannot come at any other time than now when the rate of failure is high within the university; in this light therefore, attempt is made to investigate how poverty affect the academic performance of students, as parents are expected to provide their children with textbooks, exercise books, bear the cost of transportation, regular feeding, as well as other school expenses that are important to the learning of their children. Failure of parents to perform these roles to a great extend hinder the effective learning of their children and hence affect negatively their academic performance.

However, the experience over the years has showed that the rate of poverty has increased and this has made many students to be faced with the problems of buying books, payment of school fees and hostel accommodation and their daily feeding, as most students could go on ratio in other to survive the school situations.

Consequently, due to the largeness of the population, the welfare of the vast majority of the students is affected in the process of getting a degree. No matter how advanced a nation may be in its technology and education, the average standard of living of its inhabitants will be low if the population is too large for national resources upon which it can draw. The composition of population may give rise to economic and social problems such as poverty. A mixed racial composition of population creates problem of minority groups  as well as differences in economic status, a spares population, widely scattered over an area create problem of education. The low per capital income of a parent goes a long way in affecting the academic performance of their children as there is no welfare package to alleviate poverty of majority and basic education requires a large investment in schools, Polytechnics and Universities a part both government and parents must play in order to give the child the needed training through education. It is in view that this study attempt to vividly and extensively investigate the effects of poverty on the academic performance of students in University of Abuja.

 

1.3.    Research Questions

  1. What are the effects of poverty on the academic performance of students in University of Abuja?
  2. What are the effects of poverty on the final class of degree students come out with in University of Abuja?
  3. To what extend dose the income level of parents affect the academic performance of students in University of Abuja?
  4. What are the possible ways of reducing poverty among students in University of Abuja?
    • Objectives of the Study
  5. To determine the effect of poverty on the academic performance of students in University of Abuja.To determine the effects of poverty on the final class of degree students will come out with in University of Abuja.
  6. To reveal the income level of parents and how it affects the academic performance of students in University of Abuja.
  7. To suggest possible ways of reducing poverty among students in University of Abuja.

 

1.5     Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study focuses on the University of Abuja, Abuja. The scope of the study is restricted to the effect of poverty on the academic performance of students in University of Abuja. This study will therefore be limited to the University of Abuja, Abuja; for the purpose of time and money.

 

  • Significant of the Study

Poverty has been existing in man’s society right from antiquity. It is therefore very important for everyone especially students of University of Abuja to be aware of how it affects their academic performance as seen below.

It will enable students to be aware of the effects of poverty on their academic performance as well as reason for their failure.

This study will also be of great importance to parents and guidance that are in charge of their children’s education so as to work hard in other to adequately provide for their educational needs.

Lecturers will also find this study useful as this will guild their method of teaching as well as limiting their proposed principle which sometimes limit the capacity of students who are from poor socio-economic homes.

This study will also be useful to the school administration as they will help reduce food items as well as other learning material that may be difficult to afford by students from poor background.

Also, government and other non-governmental organization will find this study useful as it will enable them to support the students in other to motivate leaning; such as providing adequate transport for students as well as supporting the financial needs of students who are from poor background.

This study will also be beneficial to students as it will help them to know areas where they need to adjust in other to increase their academic performance. Also, the society at large will find this study useful as it will help them to know the reason why students perform poorly in school.

Finally researchers will also find this study useful as it will serve as reference material to their work.

 

  • Operational Definition of Terms
  1. Poverty: This refers to the state of being poor or to live in lack. It also refers to as a state of being poor in health, material wealth education among others. Poverty also implies scarcity, dearth, or the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money. It is the inability to getting choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society.
  2. Academic Performance: This is the outcome of education-the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic performance is commonly measured by examination or continues assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important –procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts. In addition, academic performance refers to the sum total of information a student has out of his /her disposal when he/she finishes a course of study, the ability to get a pass grade in a course. It’s also the identifiable operations a student is expected to perform on the material of a course, that is, on the facts, theories, problems, principles and point of view which he/she encounters while taking the course.
  3. Student: Is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In some nations, the English term (or its cognate in another language) is reserve for those who attend university. Also, student is used for anyone who is learning, including mid-career adults who are taking vocational education or returning to university.
  4. University: This is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education.
  5. Socio-economic status (SES): This is an economic and sociological combined total measure of person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation. When analyzing a family’s socio-economic status, the household income, earners’ education, and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed. Also, socio-economic status is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group. It can also be defined as the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion.
  6. Education: There is no precise definition for the word education; however different authors have put forward their ideas on what they feel it should be.

Plato believes that education develops in the body and in the soul (of the pupil) all the beauty and all the perfection of which he is capable of.

Dewey an American pragmatist views education as the development of all these capabilities in the individual, which will enable him/her to control his/her environment and fulfill his/her responsibilities.

An education historian and former Minister in the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Fafunwa (1967) defines education as comprising all efforts, conscious and direct, incidental and indirect, made by a given society to accomplish certain objectives that are considered desirable in terms of individual’s needs as well as the needs of society where the programme is based.

UNESCO refers to education as an organized and sustained instruction designed to communicate a combination of knowledge, skills and understanding valuable for all activities of life.

Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research. It is an experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, or acts may be considered educational. It is a process of taking an individual from foolishness to wisdom and from light to darkness. It can take place in formal and informal educational settings. Dewey (1916).

  1. Absolute Poverty: Also know as extreme or abject poverty is stated as a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to services. To Joseph Wresinski the founder of ATD Fourth World, Absolute poverty is seen as “the absence of one or more factors enabling individuals and families to assume basic responsibilities and to enjoy fundamental rights. The situation may become widespread and result in more serious and permanent consequences. The lack of basic security leads to chronic poverty when it simultaneously affects several aspects of peoples’ lives, when it is prolonged and when it is severely compromises people’s chance of regaining their rights and of resuming their responsibilities in the foreseeable future.”
  2. Family: By definition, is a group of persons directly linked by kin connections the adult members of whom assume responsibility for caring for children. It can also be defined as the smallest unit/institution in the society that is made up of father, mother, and their biological or adopted children living in the same residence.

According to Collins English dictionary is a primary social group consisting of parents and their offspring.

Furthermore, the family according to oxford dictionary of sociology “is an intimate domestic group made up of people related to one another by bonds of blood, sexual mating, or legal ties”.

  1. Status: Is a state, condition, or situation. It also means the position of an individual in relation to another or others, especially in regard to social or professional standing. It also refers to a hierarchical position of a social ladder, resulting from one’s role in the labor system.
  2. Background: This refers to natural or hereditary factors, the genetic

Characteristics within an individual which either inhibit or facilitate his ability to learn.

 

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The Effects of Poverty on the Academic Performance of Students

The Effects of Poverty on the Academic Performance   of Students in University of    Abuja    

                                                       CHAPTER ONE

                                                        INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

Education is a process through which individual acquires skills, competencies, and attitude. It is the right of every child to be educated, be it traditional or western. Thus, education has been regarded as culture to man, people and the nation of the world at large. This explains why man has to educate himself and his offspring in the society. Poverty is one of the factors militating against man from carrying out his educational activities perfectly. Because of various perception and complexities of the term poverty, a universally agreed definition cannot be arrived at. Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary (2000), poverty is defined as “the state of being poor.”

Oguw (2005), sees poverty as “a way of life characterized by low calorie intake, inaccessibility of adequate health facilities, and low quality of education system, low life expectancy, unemployment and underdevelopment.” Leroy and Symes (2001) consider poverty as “a major anti-risk factors”. Relating the concept poverty to Nigeria, it is considered in a broader way which implies that it is viewed in various perspectives which impues national, state and home background. At the national level, a nation can be considered poor when her economic standard is very low and this automatically makes the nation underdeveloped. As regard poverty in the family level, it is referring to the home background. Even before the indigenous and western education, the home has always been the agency through which man Continue reading The Effects of Poverty on the Academic Performance of Students

Impact of Motivation on Staff overall Performance in the Civil Service

Impact of Motivation on Staff overall Performance in the Civil Service: A Case Study of Sokoto State Civil Service

 Statement of the Research Problem 

It is affect that organizations are set up for the purpose of achieving their desired objectives. These desired goals and objectives cannot be achieved without individuals working together in groups towards accomplishment of those common goals. It is perceived that employee benefits have a greater impact on job performance, job satisfaction and productivity. They conceived the nationwide poor infrastructures decaying enabling environment and meager minimum financial benefit of the workers are factors for low productivity among civil servants. The Sokoto State civil service is not in isolation and forms the central point of this research.

The aim of this study is to look into how the motivational factor lures the employee to achieve a high productivity in organization. Hence, the impact of motivation of staff overall performance in the civil service, a case study Sokoto State civil service and to establish to what extent such motivational factors as financial and other incentives will lead to increased productivity/performance in an organization.

Research Questions

  1. What are the impact motivations have on the civil servants of Sokoto State?
  2. Is there any form of detriments/hindrances that stands on the progress of the civil servants?
  3. Is the working environment conducive for the optimum performance of the civil servants?
  4. What better ways can the civil servants give out their best?

Continue reading Impact of Motivation on Staff overall Performance in the Civil Service

Causes and Consequences of Political Hooliganism in 2011 General Elections

Causes and Consequences of Political Hooliganism in 2011 General Elections in Bauchi State.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study covered the fourth Republic particularly the 2011-General election. The study lay emphasis on the causes and consequences of political hooliganism in Bauchi State. It hinges on those areas that poses threats and resulted in violence in the 2011-General Elections in Bauchi state.

  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this study is numerous which includes the need to have a free and peaceful election without recourse to violence, which will indeed contribute to the Democratic processes in Bauchi State and National Development.  The study will identify the challenges confronting the electoral processes in Bauchi State to proffer solution on how to consolidate democracy in Nigeria. The researcher will suggest ways on how to educate the political office holders on how to desist from action that will portends danger and serve as landmines that can explode in the democratic processes. The research will add to the already existing knowledge on election and electoral processes in Nigeria.

 LITERATURE REVIEW

Any research work which claims finality in its entity is not only un-academic but also non-scientific. A Literature review is a description of the literature relevant to a particular field or topic. It gives an overview of what has been said, who the key writers are, what are the prevailing theories and hypothesis, what question are been asked and what and methodologies are appropriate and useful. A literature review describes political information in a particular subject Area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time periods. According to Bourner T. (1996),

“The literature review is the first step towards conducting any research and identifies the key concepts, debates, controversies and researchers in a field. The review should contain a critical commentary of the literature by outlining points of companion and different between texts and most importantly how your project engages with it’s the review of related literature must be in an organized form with appropriate headings and subheadings which must be related to the problem under study.”
Continue reading Causes and Consequences of Political Hooliganism in 2011 General Elections

Public Perception of the Performance of Kano States House of Assembly

Public Perception of the Performance of Kano States House of Assembly 2011-2015

Background to the Study

There are generally three [3] constitutionally recognized institutionalized arms of government viz, the executive, the legislatures, and the judiciary. Each of these of arms of government has its traditional role to play for the maintenance and survival of the state as a whole.

The legislatures primary functions is to make laws for the good governance of the state, and the welfare of the citizens the “branch is responsible for making and changing laws” Leeds [1978:56].

The executive arms of government are to administer the laws made by the legislature. It is also responsible for responsible for direction of government affairs Leeds [1978:56] since it consists of leaders of the state and those responsible for the everyday governing of the state. While the judiciary is the third arms of government that is responsible for interpreting laws and the implementation for the existing laws to the individuals who breaks the laws Leeds [1978:56].

The judiciary exists to protect the liberties and rights of individuals in any modern state, the liberties to individuals depend upon the fairness of court in protecting them both from individuals and tyrannical or overzealous members of the government Nwonbueze [1979:215].

Legislation in Nigeria started with indigenous representative during the emergence of Clifford constitution in assembles came to existence and had disappeared due to one reason or the other and sometimes resurfaced.

Under the present Nigerian government we are operating on the presidential system of government where legislatures are divided into two groups the upper and lower chambers [the senate and the home of representatives] at the state level, we have state legislatures, [i.e. the state homes of assembly section 4 [1] and [6] of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. It would appear that on a proper construction of these provisions, these catchy words on the powers of the legislature are peace, order and good government. Continue reading Public Perception of the Performance of Kano States House of Assembly

The Consequences of Divorce on Children’s Education

The Consequences of Divorce on Children’s Education among the people of Dala Local Government Area of Kano State

Background to the Study

Divorce, was almost unheard of among couples some 40 – 50 years back, in most parts of Africa, especially in Nigeria. If couples get married then, it was for better or worse, till death keeps them part. Marriage was a worthwhile venture then, especially among the Christians, Muslims, and traditional worshippers. However, with the advent of Western Culture, the marital institution began to suffer setback pressures of life and Western way of life, made divorce with foreign word in the lexicon of couples, on every day ward and a way of life. Even when Yoruba, Hausa include in divorce, it was taboo in Igbo land, but now it seems as if it was an in-thing, (Olanrewaju, 2012).

The term DIVORCE means to separate. Divorce is a legal termination of marriage, cancelling with the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage and dissolving the bonds of matrimony between the two parties. This could happen after a husband and wife decide not to live together anymore, and that they are no longer interested in their marriage. It might seem single but it is not easy for husband and wife to decide to end a long time, established relationship. Often spread adequate amongst time trying to resolve problems before deciding to divorce (Liman, 2012).

Divorce rate in the Northern Nigeria is among the highest in West Africa and Kano State in particular. That is why the state government sponsored a mass wedding ceremony for 250 divorces, widows and young married girls (Giginyu, and Garba, 2013).

However, divorce is something regarded in Africa and other societies as a means of gaining ones freedom from terrible or unbearable marriage. (Ijesim, 2005). Continue reading The Consequences of Divorce on Children’s Education