COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ASH AND MOISTURE CONTENTS OF RIPE AND UN-RIPE PLANTAIN (Musa Paradisiaca)

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ASH AND MOISTURE CONTENTS  OF RIPE AND UN-RIPE PLANTAIN (Musa Paradisiaca)

ABSTRACT

The results of the ash and moisture contents, of ripe and unripe plantain showed that ripe plantain had 57% of moisture and 10% of ash contents. Also unripe plantain had moisture content of 50% and 10% ash contents. Meanwhile, both ripe and unripe plantain had comparatively high moisture contents, but the moisture content of ripe plantain was slightly higher by 7%. Also, the ash content of ripe plantain is higher than that of unripe plantain by 5%.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Fruits and vegetables are important components of a healthy diet. Some fruits like plantain offer great nutritional benefits. This is partly because it aid in the body’s retention of calcium, nitrogen and phosphorus, all of which work to build healthy and regenerated tissues (Sullivan and Carpenter 1993). The proximate composition of any foodstuff represents the moisture, crude protein, fat, minerals, crude fiber and carbohydrate which taken together on percent basis. Proximate analysis also known as Weende analysis is a chemical method of assessing and expressing the nutritional value of a feed which reports the moisture, ash (minerals), crude fibre, crude fat and crude protein (total nitrogen) presents in a food as a percentage of dry weight. The proximate analysis gives the overall nutritional composition of the sample in question. This is briefly complemented by anti-nutrient and mineral composition of the sample (Brady, 1970).

The proximate system for routine analysis of animal feedstuff was devised in the mid-nineteenth century at the Weende Experiment station in Germany (Henneberg and Stohmann, 2004). It developed to provide a top level, very broad, classification of food components. The system consists of the analytical determinations of water (moisture), ash, crude fat (ether extract), crude protein and crude fibre. Continue reading COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ASH AND MOISTURE CONTENTS OF RIPE AND UN-RIPE PLANTAIN (Musa Paradisiaca)

MICRO ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PALMS OF FISH HANDLERS IN OKO

MICRO ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PALMS OF FISH HANDLERS IN OKO, ORUMBA NORTH L.G.A ANAMBRA STATE

ABSTRACT

Studies on the micro organisms associated with the palms of fish handlers in Oko, Orumba North Local government Area of Anambra state was carried out. Five (5) samples were collected by swabbing the palms of five (5) different fish handlers and swabs placed in sterile containers of distilled water and cultured on Nutrient. Agar, MacConkey Ager, Chocolate, Blood Agar, potato Dextrose Agar, sabobourand Dextrose Ager, and yeast Extract. Analysis revealed the presence of staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, micrococcus spp, streptococcus spp, klebsiella spp, pseudomonas spp as bacterial isolates These micro organisms are pathogenic and the risk of infection can be reduced by observing hygienic practices at all levels of production, transportation, storage, handling, marketing and processing of fish

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

According to Mader, (2001), fishes are aquatic, gill-breathing vertebrates that usually have fins and skin covered with scales.

Also, Taylor, Green and Stout, (2002), defined fish as a variety cold-blooded vertebrate animal that lives in fresh and salt water, they breathe through the gills and use fins and tail for swimming.

According to Fox and Cameron, (1995), the fresh of fish is composed of bundles of short fibres called myomeres, which are held together by thin layers of connective tissue composed of collagen. Thus, protein of fish differs from that of meat in having less connective tissue and no elastin. The absence of tough elastin and the conversion of collagen into gelatin which occurs during cooking, make the protein of cooked fish easily digestible. Fish contains rather more water and waste matters than meat. The varieties of fish consumed have also changed in recent years. In the UK cod, together with haddock, halibut and plaice, have traditionally been the most popular fish farming is also a developing industry both salmon fish and rainbow trout being produced in this way in Britain. Continue reading MICRO ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PALMS OF FISH HANDLERS IN OKO