Impact of human resources management and organization performance in the public sector

The Impact Of Human Resources Management And Organization Performance In The Public Sector ( a case study of the Security And Exchange Commission

 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 Management for and managing human resources are emerging as an increasingly important determinant of organizational efficiency. As organizations evolve, the complexity of the environments they operate on requires much dependence on the people that make up the organizations. A very Continue reading Impact of human resources management and organization performance in the public sector

Entrepreneurship Skills And Economic Development Of Anambra State

Entrepreneurship Skills And Economic Development Of Anambra State (A Study Of Nnewi North Lga) 2010-2015

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Global dynamics have dramatically changed in the last few decades. Many countries in South East Asia and Latin America have become dominant in the exports of manufactured goods and are increasingly becoming key players in global economic environment. Unfortunately there exists a universal pessimism about Africa’s economic growth prospect. Botswana and South Africa remain exceptions simply because of their well calculated policies which direct revenue from diamond exports towards developing infrastructure and human capital. Nigeria is the Africa’s most populous country and its fourth largest economy. Ironically, even with the massive oil revenue accrued over the years, the country is categorized among the poorest in the world.

The problems of the Nigerian economy is structured in nature. The vast population of the country is made up small scale farmers and petty traders. Over time, the performance of the industrial sectors which is expected to create substantial job opportunities and serves as a link to primary sector has not been impressive. Due to low domestic productive capacity living conditions deteriorate. Poverty and unemployment increased while human capital and participation in international trade remain very low. This calls for the need to rethink the nations development strategy by looking inward to create new businesses and develop local talents.

Since the strength of an economy is measured by its physical and human resource endowment and how productively these resources are developed to produces goods and services, task of promoting entrepreneurship at all levels becomes paramount. This is especially so in a country where the unemployed people tend to rely on government and paid jobs rather than on their initiatives.

Today, large organizations have also recognized the need to promote entrepreneurship mind-set in order to explore new opportunities and to avoid complacency. This trend is encouraged by feet that corporate leader who would approach problems creatively and entrepreneurial and also strives on the management of change.

The purpose of this paper is to examine critical factors affecting the survival and growth of new business ventures in Nigeria using six states as reference points. Farmers and small business owners were asked about the activities of various government and institutional financing organs at Bungudu, Gwarzo, Isa, Nsukka, Isiakpo, Ekwisigo areas of Zamfara, Kano, Sokoto, Enugu, Rivers and Anambra States respectively. The goal is to provide a flat form for harmonized various enterprise policies and programmes which would hopefully make entrepreneurship development in the country more focused and result oriented. It is also the objective of this paper to challenges existing business as usual approach to business by individuals and organizational leadership. Perhaps this would enable them stretch their human creative faculties t innovate and grow new business ventures essential for achieving sustainable economic development. Beside utilizing contemporary literature, the paper draws insights South Asia experiences.

Anambra State us a state in South Eastern Nigeria. Its name is an anglicized capital and the seat of government is Awka, Onitsha and Nnewi are the biggest commercial and industrial cities, respectively.

The state’s theme is “Light of the Nation”. Boundaries are formed by Delta state to the west, Imo State and Rivers State of the South, Enugu State to the east and Kogi State to the North. The origin of the name is derived from the Anambra River (Omambala) which is a tributary of the famous River Niger.

The indigenous ethnic group in Anambra State are the Igbo (98% of population) and a small population of Igala (2% of the population) who live mainly in the North Western part of the state (3).

Anambnra is the eighth most populated state in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State. The stretch of more than 45km between Oba and Amorke contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated villages and small towns giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500 – 2,000 persons per square kilometer.

  • Statement of the problem

International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that 300million young people are unemployed or underemployed and 80% of those youth live in developing or transition economics. Although the ILO estimates that 20% of the young unemployed have the potential to become entrepreneurs, less than 5% actually do (Huang, et al; 2010). Programs, such as the ILO’s Youth Business International Program and you win in Nigeria target youth. There seems some levels of agreement that entrepreneurial attribute is four (personality, skills, motivation and attitude) dimensional (Lumpkin and Edrogo, 2004). However, there seem no evidence as to the order of importance and integration of the above in the entrepreneurship development process for it to lead sustainable economic transformation and developments. This may have affected success levels of entrepreneurship development programmes especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. This paper is motivated by the need to empirically as critical success factors of entrepreneurship development.

For decades, one of the principle state and local economic development tools has been tax incentives. Every state offers incentives in one form or another to retain business and attract businesses from other states. According to one survey, 95 percent of U.S municipalities also use such incentives.

Some policy markers have expressed a desire to end this practice but fell stuck in an arms race. They pear they cannot unilaterally forgo incentives because others use them, so they create ever-increasing incentive packages in an effort to compete. Although some incentives may be economically justified in terms of jobs and productivity in the midst of an arms race it’s difficult to tell what is and is not effective in creating jobs.

One thing that is known is that this practice costs taxpayers billions of dollars each year. Estimates put the annual cost near 870 billion. Moreover, incentives targeting existing companies miss the economy’s real engine of job erection new and young businesses, which create nearly all net jobs in the united states, a fact that also holds true at this state and city levels.

Policymaker have heard those arguments before, but need ideas, not criticism. The Kamffman foundation hosted a conference of state legislations, mayors, researchers, and leading thinkers to discuss two themes related to incentives.

Firstly, how can incentive programs be improved to better promote economic growth? Secondly: what alternative strategies exist for promoting economic development through entrepreneurship?

  • Research Questions

In the course of this research, the following questions were generated for analysis.

  1. To what extent does entrepreneurship contribute to economic development of Anambra State?
  2. To what extent does entrepreneurship impact on employment creation in Anambra State?
  3. To what extent does entrepreneurship contribute to increased standard of living?
    • Purpose of the study

The general objective is to develop an entrepreneurship development model that ensures a progressive learning experience, through which beneficiaries are motivated to take socially and environmentally responsive entrepreneurial actions aimed at addressing economic problems of employment and income inequalities in their societies. Hence, the specific objectives include:-

  • To ascertain the role of entrepreneurship in economic development of Anambra State.
  • To find out the role of entrepreneurship in creation of employment.
  • To find out the role of entrepreneurship towards increased standard of living in Anambra State.
    • Significance of the study

Against this backdrop of this G.D.P observed in the Anambra State and the consequences on development prospects. The major significances of this work:

  • It is expected that the study will serve as literature review to other students.
  • Most importantly, it is envisaged that it should be useful to public policy analysts, particularly policy makers etc.
  • It will be of immense help to future researchers on the role of entrepreneurship in socio-economic development of the state.
    • Scope of the study

This research work covers a comprehensive analysis of the role of entrepreneurship in economic development of Anambra state. The research will also provide a brief history of origin of entrepreneurship in Nigeria. As the researcher limits its work to Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State.

  • Limitation of the study

This work is by no means exhaustive but useful attempts to penetrate the core of the issue have been made. The researcher encountered many difficulties in the process of collecting data for his research. These problems invariably formed the basis for limitation of the study.

Firstly: time constraint affected a comprehension review of related literature on the subject after the study. Gathering of materials textbooks, journals etc for the review of literature were time consuming. The researcher being a student has other courses to cover and this had to apportion the time to meet the damage of other courses.

Secondly; the proximity of related literature materials also posed a problem. The researcher was impeded by necessary textbooks, magazine and journals for offered their downside to the study, human beings have never been easy to deal with especially when human behaviours are unpredictable. Some data and questionnaires were bluntly refused by the respondents. Finally, the research was based on the title money they could save. All these limitations, limited the validity of the finding and condition, the research would have been more retained without these constraints.

  • Definition of terms

ENTREPRENEURSHIP: This has been defined as the willingness and ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities, establish and run an enterprise successfully.

ECONOMIC: Economic is a science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.

DEVELOPMENT: Development is a process of societal advancement, where improvement in the well being of people are generated through strong partnership between all sectors, corporate bodies and other groups in the society.

  • Organization of the study

The study was organized into five chapters, one introduced the study by giving the background information on the research problem, objectives, the scope and limitation of the study. Chapter two dealt with the review of relevant literature and the theoretical framework of farmers cooperative society. Chapter three discussed the research methodology adopted for the study and relevant justifications. Chapter four presented the finding on the farmers cooperative society and rural economic development. Chapter five also presented the conclusions drawn from the research finding and recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.0           LITERATURE REVIEW

                Although there is a vast literature on economic development, there is still no clarity as to its real meaning. This notwithstanding, it is widely agreed that development must be seeing as the general improvement in living conditions of people. It is not merely about the provision of basic necessities such as food, clothing and shelter, but also health, improvement of human capital and redistribution of wealth.

Nayyer, (2003) argues that conventional economic growth theory tends to emphasize increases in per capital income as a measure for development ignoring other essential indicators of development such as reduction in poverty, inequality and employment as well as improvement in quality of life.

Easterly, (1999) and Bartoli, (2000) argue that growth must always be associated with social and institutional progress. It must assume a human dimension which encompasses the enhancement of material well being, health, education and dignity of life. Nabunde, (2002) and Charper (2003) also claims that the most effective means of improving economics performance in poor countries is through industrialization and this cannot be possible without significant rise in the level of literacy and skills, investments and saving rate which would stimulate entrepreneurship and production. Hence, fostering growth require supporting investments and accumulation of human capital.

Although the world has recorded unprecedented economic progress in the last 50years especially in terms of growth in world’s output, capital accumulation and technological advancement, the progress achieved has been uneven between and within industrialized and non-industrialized nations. It is on this basis the advocates of this endogenous growth theory insist that government policy is fundamental in the process of influencing factors determining the long term rate of growth. Soro’s, (2000) observes that government has a unique role in fastering development since the conventional market mechanism are inadequate to cater for the needs and aspirations of the late comers that are essentially poor countries. Development crisis which is the generalized incapacity of an economy to generate the necessary environmental conditions for sustained improvement in the standard of living would persist unless effective intervention mechanisms are put in place (Stein, 2003). In this respect, we could argue that it is the responsibility of the governments to provide an integrated national policy that would faster this development of entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Achieving this task is essential for increased productivity, job creation, and improvement in living condition.

2.1           Entrepreneurship Development

                In today’s world where technological change, liberalization, outsourcing, and restructuring rule, the subject of entrepreneurship has gained greater interest. The discussions centered on what actually contribute entrepreneurship and how far it extends. The term entrepreneurship is derived from the French word entreprendre to undertake. This suggests that entrepreneurship is the process of undertaking activities concerned with identifying and exploiting business opportunities while assuming it’s associated risks. Entrepreneurship is about a kind of behavior that includes initiative taking, reorganizing economic activities and the acceptance of it’s risks (Shapero, 1975) it is important to note that entrepreneurial activities are universal and ca therefore be promoted even in societies that manifest low entrepreneurship activities.

Small enterprises in particular are central in achieving sustainable growth. They constitute about 90% of the business population in North America and they accounted for the most new jobs in the country (Kuratko and Hodyelts, 1998). Entrepreneurship involves taking chances, but new businesses do not emerge by accident (Eyelhoff, 2005). They are usually founded as a result of motivated entrepreneurship gaining access to resources and finding niches in opportunity structures. Hence, entrepreneurship could be seen as the process of identifying and exploiting unique business opportunities that stretch the creative capacities of both private and public organizations. Sue and Dan, (2000) argues that entrepreneurship is influenced by genetic power, family background and economic environment. Since economic environment could support or suppress entrepreneurship, governments world over undertake to develop means economic policies that focus mainly on providing access to resources and support services to individuals and organizations that display flair for expending their business horizons. Poverty among people is usually caused by inadequate income due to shrinking job opportunities as well as high businesses tend to add jobs faster than big companies because they are highly adaptable, innovative and responsive to new business and market challenges (Frese and Rarch, 2005). Thus, supporting entrepreneurs becomes a critical policy issue especially since those new businesses that do survive tend to expand employment and growth of the nations economy. The important question to be asked is why too few young businesses grow in meaningful ways? Bruno et al (1987) maintain that there are three categories of reason for high business failures; product/market problems, financial, difficulties and managerial problems.

This suggests that the responsibility for creating and growing new businesses does not rest entirely on government. Individuals and organizations are required to analyze key success factors in business environment and take personal responsibility for survival and growth of their own ventures. On its part, government is expected to provide adequate infrastructure and friendly policy guidelines.

2.1.2 Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Economic Development

The association of entrepreneurship and economic development of nations has long been recognized by economists of the past such as Jean Baptiste (1803) and Joseph Schumpter (1934): Small firms tend to employ more labour per unit of capital and require less per capital unit of output than do large one (Kuratko and Hodgetts, 1998). Thus, the creation of small businesses and growing the existing one’s is considered to be the fastest way to achieve economic growth. conventionally, ideas about how businesses ideas emerge in society have assumed that the process starts and ends with the individuals character traits (Kilby, 1988). This suggests that an entrepreneurship character is in-born. However, many argues that entrepreneurship, behavior could be stimulated through policy intervention (Chelland and Klinter, 1969). This is the reason why entrepreneurship in increasingly promoted in less developed countries.

There is probably no regime in Nigeria which at one time or another has to emphasized the development of small enterprises. For examples, the need for encouraging increased productivity and self-employment has been recognized since 1970s with formulation of the small scale enterprises promotion policy. Until now, government pronouncement on promoting small enterprises are not always translated into serious policy statements backed by effective implementation mechanisms. In fact, most of the programmes, introduced to assist small enterprises only reached a small portion of the total of small business population. In actual sense, policy makers were more concerned with the establishment of few large enterprises than developing small ones. This was what partly informed the import substitution industry (ISI) strategy of the late 1970s where huge sum of money was spent on unsustainable mammoth companies. For example, a number of automobile assembly, plants were established in various part of the country, many such as Fiat in Kano and Stoyre in Bauchi States have collapsed. Again, government is unable to improve infrastructure, security and general state of the economy which all have devastating effect on small business.

Of course, the inability of business owners to change ineffective traditional management practices and adopt innovative reforms also contribute significantly to their misfortune.

2.1.3   Problems of Small Enterprises in Nigeria            

                There are a number of problems limiting the growth of small and medium size businesses in Nigeria. Our survey reveals that most of the problems exist because of poor policy guidelines while others are attributed to the lack of imagination and expertise by the existing and potential entrepreneurs. Specifically, the problems border the neglect of new business opportunities poor infrastructure and insecurity, lack of government support, neglect difficulties faced by youth, problem of

Entrepreneurship Skills And Economic Development Of Anambra State

Population Census And National Development In Nigeria

Population Census And National Development In Nigeria: A Study Of The 2006 Population Census In Anambra State.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Census in Nigeria is nothing to write home about, from colonial era to 2006 various governments and agencies have tried their best to prefer solution to the problems of census on Nigeria without success factors responsible range  from collection of data, illiteracy and poor accessibility to remote area, inadequate professional expertise etc. It has failed due tot out environment that is controlled by corruption. Since census figure is used as a basis for parliamentary Continue reading Population Census And National Development In Nigeria

The Poverty Eradication Programme In Nigeria

The Poverty Eradication Programme In Nigeria (An Assessment Of Napep 2005-2015)   

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

The Poverty Eradication Programme in Nigeria (An Assessment of the NAPEP 2005-2015) has been a subject of protected debate amongst different scholars.

In respect of the generated debates different scholars and opinion leaders have tried to analyse and document facts to this effect.  Continue reading The Poverty Eradication Programme In Nigeria

Public Relations Practice In Local Governments

Public Relations Practice In Local Government A Case Study Of Mabaitoli Local Government

ABSTRACT

            Groups of people made of males and females families including the in the village, towns and cities working and doing things with one another form the society. In public Relations practice, take (Mbaitoli Local Government in Imo State as a case study) people both employees and the employer would want to work in peace among themselves and solve the problems which they have . That is, they maintains public goodwill among his employees, employers and the ruled. If some thing is to be done in the Mbaitoli Local Government the Chairman can instruct the Local Government public relations officer to disseminate his plans, intentions or information to his publics.

This Local Government Council came into being in the year 21st November 1991. This local government is situated at the North part of Owerri the capital of Imo State with its headquarters at Nwaorieubi. This council has a work force of two hundred and thirty two staff. The major spoken language there is Igbo language. In the words of professor Sam Black…. Public Relations 1 “The art and science of achieving harmony with the environment through mutual understanding based on truth and full information”.

The researcher found out that inadequate finance had been the major problem of this new council hence it could not meet up with the provision of some vital social amenities of its communities of Ubomiri, Mbieri and Nwaoriubi etc. The researchers found that though there were vrtes and  regulations for her entire populace as well as codes of ethics to uphold, maintain and sustain her common interest and guide her towards good government, the council, I still needs. Lots  of public relations strategies in order to improve and gain public acceptance, understanding as well as secure support and goodwill.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Public relations practice in the Mboitoli Local Government commenced just after the creation of this new council from its present council Mbaitoli Local Government by General Babangida’s military regime on 2s1t of November 1991.

This Mbaitoli Local Government is situated at the North part of Owerri the capital of Imo State with its Headquarter at Nwaorieubi, Imo state. The areas that make up this Mbaitoli Local Government comprise of Obamiri, Mbieri, Afara, Ifeakara, Olodo, Umunneoha, Ogoro, Nwaorieubi. It has a wide range of population over five hundred thousand inhabitants.

The council has work force of three hundred members of staff. The very language of communication there is merely Igbo language except when distraction of class is imperative or when communication  is to be written down. The chairman of the Mbaitoli local Government has to be understood by his workers and constituencies, that is to means that he maintains public goodwill among his employees and the ruled.

The researchers found out that financial incapacitation of the council made its development programmes unrealistic and inconsistency in the administrative system of the council does not allow the council to embark on provision of meaningful social amenities.

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

“In every human society, there are rules and regulations by which people interact with themselves”. It is practically obvious that without these, there can be no peace or harmony among them since everyone cannot behave the same way. As countries and communities have rules and regulations, so is Mbaitolu Local Government Authority. This local government under study has its vrtes and regulations for her entire populace as well as code of ethics to uphold, maintain and sustain her common interest and guide her towards good governance.

It is apparently clear, based on the findings on this Local Government Authority, that public relations practice there needs lots of strategies  in order to improve and gain public understanding and acceptance, as well as secure support and goodwill.

Similarly, the authority has no workable mechanism to reach her grabs root publics. It was found but that it takes weeks before information from the local government authority is disseminated to the communities, towns and villages. That is to buttress that, there is no easy flow of communication from the authority. It was equally observed that the local Government Authority does not operate open-door-policy and this is adversely affecting the administration of the local government. They have not enough fund to run the council. In this study it was observed that this authority has no full public relations office, and that public relations office of the said local government was not given the chance to discharge his duties as an expert.

Meanwhile, their information department reveals that they practice both downward and upward communication, but horizontal communication is not common at the headquarters though they practice both formal and informal communication. The problem therefore, is to find out the mode of public relations practice in local government using Mbaitoli as a case study.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

“It should be noted that public relations serves as a veritable information and communication bridge between the organization and its various internal and external publics”

On this basis it become apparent to x- ray the import and need for an effective public relations on the local government. To ascertain opinions of the community about the local government and why they have such opinion.

It is within the frame work of this research to find out the objective of the local government authority.

It is also within the preview of this research work to examine how the non-effective practice of public relations has adversely affected the impart and the performance of the local government authority in the past.

It will also bring to bare, how the performance of the information office in this local government has gravely affected public relation between the local government authority and the people

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

As one of the first in-depth studies on public relations practice in this local government , this   research work will be of immense significance in many respects, most importantly this project will act as policy blue print for the effective utilization of public relations strategy in the local government. It will also as a reference material for local government administrators and workers

It is hoped that the local government authority, will use work as  a theoretical frame work for the implementation of its development programmes and consequent roots of democracy

Finally, it is believed that at the end of this research work the public relations department of the local government under review will in appreciation of this work be able to find out how best to do what it to do it.

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This is designed for both internal and external public of Mabaitoli Local Government Authority.

  1. What are the formal public relations in this local government?
  2. What extent of adequate flow of communication between management and staff of the local government?
  3. What is the extent co-operation, goodwill and harmony between the council and the employees in the local government always make its policies know to the people of Mbaitoli Local Government?
  4. What is the effect on the public on the activities of the local government?

CHAPTER TWO

  • LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       CONCEPT OF PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTICE

Public relations practice is as old as mankind groups of people made of females and males both families and individual in the village, towns and cities working and doing things with one another form the society. In this  society take Mbaitoli Local Government in Imo State as a case study, people both employees and the employers would want to work in peace among themselves and solve the problems which they have. Therefore, something is to be done in the Mbaitoli Local Government, the chairman can instruct the Local Government public relations officer to disseminate his plans, intention or information to his publics. The public relations officer may also call for a meeting with  elders and youth associations in the town to explain what is to be done for the progress of their community. The meeting is geared  towards making the people chiefs elders and youth associations to understand the intentions to the local government. By so doing, the chairman and the community through his public relations officer is practicing public relations.

Similarly, the chairman many co-operate with communities under the jurisdiction of his  leadership to run joint Medical  Centers and schools which could serve not only the interest of the employees of the local government concerned but also those of members of the local communities, awarding scholarship to selected students of the communities, organizing of special enlightenment progremmes for schools, community headers and other to educate them on the benefits arising directly or  indirectly from the government of the local government and to correct any misconception which they may have. By so doing the local government is also practicing public relations and public relations is based on maintaining public goodwill. This is so because I the past changing social, political and economic climate, everyone wants to be heard, to be seen to be involved in what is happening and to succeed. This has brought about competition and rivalry in the society, in the some vein, that is why there is need to get other people to know what one is doing. This objective can only be achieved by proper application of public relations which is best defined as “the business of creating an maintaining public understanding and support through effective communications”.

During the survey, the researchers found out that there is formal public relations unit in the local government under study. It was also observed that the management and members of staff do communicate adequately. The researchers equally observed the major principle of practical public relations which anchors on  ninety percent doing and ten percent taking is not workable in the council under study.

It was observed that there are rules and regulations, aims and objectives, customs, code of conduct of the council which are based on its history and social reliance. It is therefore expected that all levels of members of staff, whether  the chairman or junior workers are expected to follow the council land down policy. But the most disheartening fact is that the public relations practitioners of the local government are not much interested in drying to achieve the important objectives of their profession which is maintaining and sustaining public goodwill and harmony. For much quest of money and some lapses, none, most probably is still interested to avoid occupational hazards and accurate boundary delineation.

2.2       ESSENTIAL OF PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTICE

There are four essential requirements vital for the success of any public relations activity.

  1. These are firstly, the need to ensure that the message is beamed to the right target publics.
  2. That the most appropriate type of media is used for conveying the message.

iii.        That there is a carefully planned programme spelling out what is to be done, how, when and by whom.

  1. That the while programme in characterized by an ii-embracing theme flowing through each activity.

That means in effect, that the public relations officer of the council should take into cognizance and should take into cognizance and above stipulated appraisal.

Government, whether military or civilian must have support and acceptance of the citizenry in order to be effective or even to survive for a reasonable period. This is because in theory and practice every government derives its legitimacy or the rights to govern from the people of citizens. It seems that the office voted in by the people of the local government to hold power influence and control on behalf of the collectivity, the masses or citizenry forget all these and operates if they can do without the support and acceptance of the citizenry. They run the   council affairs as rules or pandal lords instead of leaders or servants people for whom they hold political power on trust.

Meanwhile, the researchers are contended that if practical and workable public relations strategies are enforced, the local government office holders may regain reputation of the council. The above assertion is in accordance with the pact that “a company with a clear sense of where it stands with its various public is in turn, in a sound position to capitalize on the strengths of its reputation and action to correct its weaknesses.

“The foundation of good employee relations is a sound personal policy which commits a company to providing good working conditions, pain compensation, opportunity for advancement  and desirable benefits to employee”.

Obviously, an employee relation programme cannot gain the goodwill and understanding of employees of a local government which underpays, overlooks, pays favoutes and disregards the welfare of its employees. What  is said to employees means nothing unless the words are supported with good personnel policy and management and competence.

2.3       HAZARDS OF GOOD PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTICE

a lot of factors contributed to the down fall of the public relations practices, these comb a  farmed the hazards which serves as a stumbling block in the phones of public relations. On the, other hand, failure to inform the publics of the council about its philosophy, policies and developments effecting their interests leads to misconception, false rumors and criticism of the local government. The effect means that the publics are not informed about matters that concern them, they make their own deductions and assumptions, which are often false on they listen to  outside sources that provide in accurate information.

It should be borne in mind that the planning and execution of an employee and entire publics communication and information programme should be the responsibility of the employees of the public relations department. An employee and entire public communication prgramme should be proceeded by a survey of employees and entire public knowledge of the council to determine that workers and entire publics significant subjects. The reason for this survey is to determine what information should be communicate to employees and publics.

Research showed that it has not been quite easy for the local authority to adequately each its entire populace. But the publics relations department of this local council should know that for effective collection or dissemination of news in rural areas, the following sources are known to provide useful result.

  1. Traditional rulers and community leaders.
  2. Village priests, headmasters and town criers.
  3. Local government staff
  4. Sons of the soil who return home during festivals and holidays.
  5. Government extension works and social workers.

Mbaitoli local government should endavour to make sure the publics are satisfied with its activities in the sense that it could be expected to provide regular employment for young men and women from the area. Consider the local publics firs in their award of contracts, to support financially or by participation in local charitable and cultural projects and assists in the development of local schools, markets and facilities: as well as in social responsibility.

Questions of confirming the general standard of morality, sponsorship of special projects in the interest of the entire publics of the local government under study and helping to keep the environment clean prompt payment of salaries, promotions and better conditions of both the retired and current staff on one hand and co-operating with local authorities towards meeting community wide problems, particularly in the areas of construction of access roads, provision of markets building of new schools, health clinics, construction of civil centers, encouraging education through the award of scholarship to deserving students and scholars, donation of book and the like, on the other hand, and being asked for both by the local government employees and its entire public.

The public relations department of this council should intermittently look to examine all what have done to know whether there was a mistake or all was good. The public relations practitioners of this council should have at the back of their mind the codes and ethics to uphold their common interest . finally reference will be made to the Nigerian institute of public relations (NIPR) which was pounded in 1963. in the NIPR constitution, section 3, sub-section (v) made provision for a code of ethics regarded a declaration for the guidance of public relations. The code ethics states as follows: every member of the Nigerian institute of public relations shall:

  1. Respect the moral principles of universal declaration of Human Rights and freedom entrenched in the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in his or her duties.
  2. Put truth and honesty of purpose before all consideration.
  3. Respect only interests which are not in conflict.
  4. Not operate any front organization.
  5. Co-operate with other members in upholding and enforcing this code.

Public relations shall start and end without blemish. Public relations as a management concept and as a staff function in organization has grown rapidity over the three or four decades. These growth or development came as a result of the increasing and growing insight into what motivates, individuals and groups. Gaining the support and co-operation of others through persuasion as part of day to day business of every organization be it federal government, local government, business firms, labour union, armed forces, universities and welfare agencies.

Public relations is talking to people or communicating with people. It is justifying your action with the intent of paiming peoples support. You could equate public relations with these biblical injunction, do into others what you will like   them to you, or love your neighbours as you love yourself.

Public relations is an intellectual exercise but one of surprising simplicity and common sense. It is to  tell a story in such a way that the listener, viewer or reader understands it within his own terms or references, patience is called for:

“Repetition is valuable but you do need to choose the language for the audience to get the score right”.

2.4       PUBLIC RELATIONS AND PROPAGANDA

            It is not possible to define propaganda in the strike terms. Although various definitions of propaganda exist in the researches of propaganda exist in the researches of social psychologists and communications experts, it does not  appear as is consensus is available. However, the operational definition of propaganda by Goebbles, the man who used propaganda in the most adroit manner for Hitler’s Nazi cause, suggested two seemingly incontrovertible qualities of propaganda. There are the assumption of a dependent mind on the part of the desired audience and the  presentation in an argument of only the side that faviours the propagandist.

Goebbles defined propaganda as an instrument of politics a ower for social control. The function of   propaganda is not essentially to covert, rather its function is to attract followers and to keep them in line. The task of propaganda, given suitable avenue, is to blanket every area of human activity so that the environment of the individual is changed o absorb the (Nazi) movement world view.

Techniques of persuasion” J.A.C. Brown – Listed right techniques of propaganda. These are: the use of stereotype terms like  capitalist, Red, Negro, Jew and so on, substation, of terms with connotative expressions like the Red for the commits and capitalist for free enterprise, selection of only favourble facts or use out of a legion, downright lying and repetition. The three other techniques of propaganda  according to Brown are assertion instead of arguments, naming of enemies of the cause and appears to authorities-political religious, professional or otherwise from the definitions of public Relations earlier stated it is clear that none of the  attributes of propaganda mentioned in the last two paragraphs are applicable to the profession. The end-product which public relations tries to attain, which had recurred in the definitions considered so far, are goodwill, mutual understanding, voluntary support, favourable opinion, rapport and co-operation. All these coupled with the qualities of planning, substances, continuity and deliberate reach out distinguish public relations from other forms of business and communication outs such as propaganda, journalism, advertising and marketing.

2.5       PHILOSOPHY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS

The will be looking at the anatomy of public relations philosophy has been defined lexically as a critical examination of the grounds for fundamental beliefs and an analysis of the basic concepts employed in the expression of such beliefs.

In treating the subject of philosophy of public relations therefore, we shall be addressing our minds to:

  1. Foundational beliefs,
  2. Basic concepts and
  3. Critical analysis of beliefs and concepts.

The underlying belief and basic  concept f public relations is that every organization, engaged in whatever endeavour has an environment, public relations also believes, should be conducive  and peaceful to ensure continued and happy survival of that organization and the consistent achievement of its objectives. This transates to harmony between an organization and its publics.

Further still, public relations believes that all organization have a  need to be socially responsible and accountable to the society it large and also the immediate community where they operate by obeying laws and regulations, contributing to polices and paying taxes as and when due. Therefore, all organizations must reach out or mutually understanding in their peopreghical areas. This is why all definitions of public relations, which are the notions, ideas and thoughts of what public relations is from the point of view of its  ironers, have always centred on some constituents of the public spirit, that is, opinion, goodwill, acceptability, cooperation, understanding and others. All these are attributes of the public spirit which guarantee  a good working and operational environment for any corporate body.

It is also a firm belief and basic concept of public relation the organizations have a social responsibility to contribute to the development and welfare of the communities, where they operate. In the instance, the basic exhortation of public. Relations is sensitivities. Organizations should be sensitive to the welfare of their communities and act positively about it. This is the basic reason why community relations is virile aspect of public relations practice.

Public relations also holds the belief that when an entity des the following:

  1. Acknowledges an environment and does all necessary t make it conducive to its operations.
  2. Is socially responsible to that environment in the two way described above, then it is creating for itself a good image which will guarantee the enjoyment of the constituents of the public spirit.

2.6       PURPOSE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS

purpose in simple terms is an objective to be attained, an end or aim to be kept in view. So, what objectives does public relations desire to achieve? What end has it in view from its basic philosophy. At the end  of the day, the attributes of the public spirit which public relations strives to create through its philosophy that is goodwill, understanding, acceptability and others, are fore-runner of:

  1. Organization’s survival though profit making for commercial organizations.
  2. Peaceful government for government.
  3. Achievement of the welfare of the people through the propagation of an idea for voluntary organizations – E.P: UNICEF, Planned Parenthood and others.

For commercial organizations, public relations ultimate aim is to ensure that profit is satisfactorily earned. This is done by creating an atmosphere where good image for the corporate body and its brand insurances survival. It does not contribute directly to sales as marketing. However, it does its own by situating positively in the minds of people, the corporate body, and by mental association the products of that organization.

Public relations performs the business of implanting the corporate body in the mental system, a kind of storing function. On the whole, public relations, on an idealistic notion, is the moral aspect of business, an acknowledgement of the right of society to corporate relationship and benefits, and a striving to achieve satisfaction and happiness of not only an organization’s public but other people as well.

In the critical analysis of public relations concepts, our second questions is – How does the profession intend to actualize this philosophy and achieve this purpose?

In other words, what are the contens of its armory in the achievement of its basic aims?

Public relations strives to achieve its objectives by:

  1. An articulation of organizational behaviour or mode of relationship between an organization and the parts of the society with which it has responsibility to relate.
  2. Communication
  3. Liaison
  4. Sensitivity.

All these can be described as the weapons tools or techniques of public relations practice.

2.6       PUBLICS IN PUBLIC RELATIONS

The first of the means by which public relations strives to achieve its purpose and objectives is the articulation of organizational behaviour which is the subject of this section treated under two subheadings. One is the beatification of publics while the other is the enunciation of public rations policy. Before crystallizing or articulating organizational behaviour, in organization will first of all identify the publics with which it has relate in a particular manner.

The word publics is a professional Jargon in public relations which simply  put, means the segments of the population which a auricular organization has responsibility to relate or deal with. The concept of “Publics” is central to the liaison, communication and sensitivity functions of public relations because these functions have to be carried out to the benefit of a particular set of people. This particular set of people are the publics. It is also in view of the importance of this concept that practitioners and theorists of public relations have formalized publics into two divisions: external and eternal. Both terms literally explain themselves viz. internal publics are within, while external publics are outside the external publics are outside the organization.

However, for purposes of better understanding and appreciation of the concept, two other divisions based on geographical contiguity and functionality have included. These lather divisions do not excuse publics from their internal and external character. They only aid better identification in terms of geography and function. Before and in depth analysis of the geographical contiguity and functionality nature of publics, it may be pertinent to make it clear here that the attributes of internal, external, geographical contiguity and functionality are the parameters for identifying publics. That is, publics will qualify to be one to an organization from the point view of where a set of people are located and of what use or purpose they are to the organization.

Geographical Contiguity

All organizations intending to do business in a particular country are by law required to be incorporated or register3d in the country. This formal act imposes a territorial obligation on the company to obey the laws of the country as they relate to business activities. It also imposes a responsibility on that organization relate to all citizens of that country and especially those benefiting directly from its services. This responsibility also extends to a obligation to participate in the development of the country social and technologically. The whole country is therefore a prime public for all organizations. It is the cosmopolitan publics for all.

Habitat Publics

Habitat publics are identifiable in the immediate operation area of a  organization. They will consist of state and local governments, the entire immediate community, traditional councils, opinion leaders, community development association, youth club, sports clubs and voluntary social service organizations. Effort directed at community relations are servicing pastures to the publics.

Functionality

Under this heading, two publics are identifiable. They are value publics and ingredient publics.

Value Publics

Some segments of the society are  important to an organization, solely for the purposes of favourable opinion and attitude both of which guarantee patronage. Identifiable under these are  consumers, shareholders, dealers, opinion leaders, professional association and others. All these segments will need to have enough true confidence and good opinion to want to buy products of the company, invest in it and supply it with raw materials.

Ingredient Public

There are other segments of society that are important in organization by virtue of the their immediate functions and contributions. Members of these publics are necessary for the immediate operations of the organization and are in this capacity physically conceived with policy-making, daily operations, administration  and production services, financial matters and regulatory statues. These publics are the Board of directors, management and staff, financial institution, governments, legislatures, government agencies and labour unions.

When a body falls under more than one group, the implication or an organization is that relating with that body should take place in both levels. For example, the government could be a habitat public by cirtue of its ability to make regulations which may affect the operations of the organization. Relating with this type of publics will therefore consist of carrying out obligations that are necessary in the area of community relations and also carrying out obligations necessary by obeying or complying with regulations of that government.

Public Relations Practice In Local Government A Case Study Of Mabaitoli Local Government

Government Regulation And Control Of Business In A Developing Economy

Government Regulation And Control Of Business In A Developing Economy.(A Case Study Of Nigeria Breweries Enugu)

Abstract

        The significance of government regulation and control of business in a developing economy lies in the fact that with laid down rules (laws) guiding the operation of business organization particularly in developing economy, their would be all sort of business malpractices that will not hinder the growth and development but also drawn the economy. Continue reading Government Regulation And Control Of Business In A Developing Economy

Public Relations Practice In Local Government

Public Relations Practice In Local Government.A Case Study Of Mabaitoli LGA.

Abstract

            Groups of people made of males and females families including the in the village, towns and cities working and doing things with one another form the society. In public Relations practice, take (Mbaitoli Local Government in Imo State as a case study) people both employees and the employer would want to work in Continue reading Public Relations Practice In Local Government

The Poverty Alleviation Programme In Nigeria,A Case Study Of Ani nri Local Government Area.

The Poverty Alleviation  Programme In Nigeria,A Case Study Of Ani nri Local Government Area.

Abstract

This research was carried out to examine poverty alleviation programmes in Aninri Local Government Area. The objective of the research is to analyze the level, nature and extent of poverty in Aninri Local Government Area Viz-a-viz programmes implemented over the years to alleviate poverty in the council.

In order to arrive at an accurate comprehensive conclusion to all analysis involved, the buferma approach in his work on poverty alleviation programmes and strategies was adopted. hence, this research propose to make use of data derived from questionnaires and his historical  data and similar studies. therefore, primary and secondary source of data was employed. the survey methods used were interview and questionnaire while the population of the  study consist of inhabitants of  Aninri L.G.A and the sample size was determine using the yamani formaular. Continue reading The Poverty Alleviation Programme In Nigeria,A Case Study Of Ani nri Local Government Area.

Public administration project topics

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independent national electoral commission and sustainable democracy in nigeria political system

The problems of staff recruitment and training and the impact on productivity in federal polytechnic

Effects of organizational conflict on workers’performance in nigerian public service

the role of women structures in community development

The effect of local government administration on grass root development in anambra state productivity

An evaluation of pension administration in the nigerian public service

The role of local government in rural development

Evaluation of the problems and prospects of youth unemployment in nigeria

Youth urbanization a bane to food production and agricultural development in nigeria

An evaluation of strategies for minimizing poverty in nigeria.

The effect of human relation in solving organizational conflicts in nigeria institution of higher learning

The causes and effects of unemployment in nigeria economy

Human Resources Management and Organization Performance in Organization

The Poverty Alleviation Programme In Nigeria,A Case Study Of Ani nri Local Government Area.

Public Relations Practice In Local Government

Government Regulation And Control Of Business In A Developing Economy

Public administration project topics and materials

INDEPENDENT NATIONAL ELECTORAL COMMISSION AND SUSTAINABLE DEMOCRACY IN NIGERIA INEC

INDEPENDENT NATIONAL ELECTORAL COMMISSION AND SUSTAINABLE DEMOCRACY IN NIGERIA POLITICAL SYSTEM (A STUDY OF 2011 GENERAL ELECTION).

ABSTRACT

This study focused on independent national Electoral Commission and Sustenance of democracy in Nigeria with particular reference to 2011 general election. Electoral commission is an independent body set up by government to plan, organize and supervise the conduct of elections. It was established under section 153(1) of the 1999 constitution. Both primary and secondary source of Continue reading INDEPENDENT NATIONAL ELECTORAL COMMISSION AND SUSTAINABLE DEMOCRACY IN NIGERIA INEC