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Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type-2 amongs commercial sex workers

The Potential use of Beta Vulgaris as a stain to demonstrate SchistosomaHaematobium in bladder biopsy

Hemoglobin variants in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic

 

PREVALENCE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE-2 AMONGST COMMERICAL SEX WORKERS

PREVALENCE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE-2 AMONGST COMMERICAL SEX WORKERS IN JOS NORTH LGA

abstract

Human simplex virus type-2 is an asymptomatic infection which poses a public health challenge to humans coupled with its inability to be prevented through vaccination. Public awareness campaign is a useful tool to reducing this menace especially as prevention and control of HSV-2 infection is concerned. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of HSV-2 among commercial sex workers in Jos metropolis of Plateau State. A total of 92 commercial sex workers were recruited for the study with questionnaires administered and their serum samples collected and screened using DA-HSV 1, 2 IgG-2010, USA. Out of the 92 screened participants, 77 (83.7%) were positive for HSV-2. The highest prevalence was found among commercial sex workers tested with more than one sexual partner (100.0%). Possible risk factors for HSV-2 infection in this study is associated with divorce (90.5%), genital discharge (90.2%), those with secondary school educational level (87.9%), unprotected sex (85.9%) and those within the age range 10 – 19 years (85.3%). This work shows that HSV-2 is present among commercial sex workers examined. Therefore intense public awareness and proper screening of HSV-2 should be done regularly to comb spread and further transmission of the infection.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Herpes simplex virus is also known as human herpesvirus of herpesvirus family, herpesviridae, which infect humans (Ryan et al., 2004). HSV-2 produces most genital herpes which are ubiquitous and contagious.  Herpes simplex can be spread through contact with saliva, such as sharing drinks. Symptoms of herpes simplex virus infection include watery blisters in the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, lips or genitals. Lesions heal with a scab characteristic of herpetic disease. Sometimes, the viruses cause very mild or atypical symptoms during outbreaks. HSV persist in the body by becoming latent and hiding from the immune system in the cell bodies of neurons. After the initial or primary infection, some infected people experience sporadic episodes of viral reactivation or outbreaks. In an outbreak, the virus in a nerve cell becomes active and is transported via the neuron’s axon to the skin, where virus replication and shedding occur and cause new sores. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infection (Straface et al., 2012). Continue reading PREVALENCE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE-2 AMONGST COMMERICAL SEX WORKERS

The Potential use of Beta Vulgaris as a stain to demonstrate Schistosoma Haematobium in bladder biopsy

The Potential use of Beta Vulgaris as a stain to demonstrate Schistosoma Haematobium in Bladder Biopsy

CHAPTER ONE

Staining In Histopathology

Colour is one of the elements of nature that has made human living more aesthetic and fascinating in the world. (Bassey et al., 2011). Staining is a techniques or a method that has been employed in microscopy which enable visualization and identification of structures of tissues and micro-organism. The process of staining enables certain cell or structure to be readily identified and studied because of the contrasting colours (s) they take on base on their chemical and physical properties. (Adio , 2015).

The physical and chemical makeup of cellular component of a tissue allows for uptake of different shade resulting in a contrast. Stains have been used to enhance accurate description of microscopic structures of tissues which is necessary for histopathologic analysis (Egbujo et al., 2008). The use of different stains has enabled the preferential staining of certain cellular component such as the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria.  Most stains can be used on fixed or non living cell while only a few can be used on either living or non living cells. The process of staining which involves staining living cells is called vital staining.

In many cases, stains are affected by heat and may become reactive enough to bind with underlying materials. A mordant which is a chemical compound is required by some dyes to form an insoluble coloured precipitate.  This enables the stain to remain on the stained structure after excess of the dye have been washed away.  The use of accelerators helps increased the speed, intensity and specificity of staining while the conversion of inactive to active compound is achieved through the use of oxidants. (Awvioro, 2002). Continue reading The Potential use of Beta Vulgaris as a stain to demonstrate Schistosoma Haematobium in bladder biopsy

HAEMOGLOBIN VARIANTS IN PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC

Haemoglobin variants in pregnant Women attending antenatal clinic in Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos.

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Haemoglobin variants are inherited disease caused by reduced or abnormal synthesis of globin.

Mutations in the globin genes are the most prevalent monogene disorders world wide and affects approximately 7% of the world’s population (Hoffbrand et al., 2006).

Haemoglobin pathy is defined as variation in the normal rate of synthesis or a complete absence of synthesis on continuous production of a normal developmental haemoglobin for change in the actual structure of haemoglobin e.g HbS and HbC.

Clinical effect of Hb variants results in the following:

  1. Altered physio co-chemical properties leading to haemolysis e.g. HbS which has decreased solubility upon deoxygination
  2. Decrease stability Haemoglobin with this change often precipitate within the Red blood cell leading to Heinz bodies and haemolytic anaemia.
  3. Altered oxygen binding these are variants with either high or low oxygen affinity
  • High oxygen variant manifest themselves with erythrocyte resulting from tissue hypoxia and stimulation of Epo production.
  • Low oxygen variant may cause mild anaemia and altered oxygen affinity usually result from substitution at the α1 β2 contact at the 2, 3 DPG binding site or at the carbon terminus of the β – chain.
  1. Met haemoglobin Result from the oxidation of haem iron to the ferric state majority of this have Histidine – Tyrosin sibstituttion either in the proximal or distal histidine clinically, the manifest as familial cyanosis.
  2. Some variants lead to a thalassaemia phenotype either as a result of reduce synthesis or as a result of globin hyper instability e.g.of reduce synthesis is HbE, Haemoglobin knowsses e.g. of globinopathy with globin herper instability is Hb Geneva.

Statement of Research Problem

  • Haemoglobin variant is a major cause of morbidity and mortality
  • Recent data estimates over 5.5million HbAS births and 313100 HbSS birth with 75% of those occurring in sub-Sahara, Africa. (Darlison, 2008).
  • Haemoglobin disorder causes a variety of syndromes all with anaemia as the common characteristic and with wide spectrum of clinical severity consequence.

Justification

  • Globally around 7% of pregnant women carry β and alpha zero thalassemia or haemoglobin S, C, D Punjab, E and over 1% of couples are at risk (WHO, 2015).
  • Carriers and couples at risk should be identified and informed of their   risk and option for reducing it by genetic counseling.

Scope of Study

Haemoglobin genotype was carried on the blood sample of 126 pregnant women attending Ante-Natal clinic in Jos University Teaching Hospital. Continue reading HAEMOGLOBIN VARIANTS IN PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC