COOPERATIVES: A STRATEGY FOR GENERATING EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN ANAMBRA STATE (A CASE STUDY OF AWKA SOUTH LGA)
The purpose of this research is to know the capacity of cooperative in generating employment opportunities. The researcher decides to use Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State as a case study. Sample size was statistically determined from the population. Data were collected from both primary and secondary source. The responses obtained from the respondents through questionnaires were analysed using table, frequencies and percentage, and the findings revealed that cooperative societies assist/help in generating employment. The present performance of cooperatives in Awka South Local Government Area indicates that they have provided employment for people, they also teach the best skill to use for self employment and reliance. However, these societies require assistance to make their operational scale more viable. In addition, mobilization of jobless people would help to adopt co-operative integrated approach in generating employment opportunities in Anambra State and beyond. Finally, cooperative societies should be empowered to establish factories and viable small and large scale industries, which will create more employment opportunities to people.
Cooperative is very important in the creation of employment opportunity, since its members can came together and put hands to carry out one business or the other.
Cooperative has been in existence since the early days of industrial revolution in the Great Britain between the 18th and 19th centuries, it is a device adopted by the suffering class during industries revolution to amend their condition, and we cannot over-emphasize the role cooperative plays in the generation of employment, improving the people’s standard of living and poverty eradication.
Unemployment could be referred to as any factors of production which is not active and have not been utilized for production. It is an age-long problem and has hindered development. It is crowned with a lot of problems caused by human and nature, and to a great extent, this has been responsible for the poor performance of the some sector of the economy, especially in our country, Nigeria.
In this work, we are looking out to see the roles of cooperatives in the generation of employment opportunities in Awka South Local government Area, Anambra State. All over the world in less developed countries, millions are unemployment forces are without paid employment. The role of cooperative in the creation of employment has attracted the intellectual thoughts of many policy makers and other educated elites in developing nations since their attain of political independence.
For instance, in Nigeria this interest was incubated from use of local resources, equitable labour, income and general idea of self reliance and sufficiency. A country with high population density has a potential for diversified development especially where there is considerable quantity of mineral wealth, which include resources like petroleum, iron rural gas, gold etc.
The problem of unemployment has been a major issue and the remote cause of brain-drain in the poor nations. Actually, it has become obvious that the large scale industries with their capital intensive input have completely failed in decreasing numbers of unemployment in the economy. Therefore, cooperative policy makers and government are re-directing their interest towards the establishment and labour intensive productivity with small initial capital out-lay.
Consequently, the Nigerian industrial development policy led to the concentration of major industries in cities, drift of the population to urban area, stagnation of rural development and eventual abandonment of the agricultural and small industries that are found in the rural communities. This has necessitated the order by the federal government for total restructuring of the economy, emphasizing basically the sourcing of local raw materials and the important and adaptation of the technology. This attempt of restructuring the economy and improving the standard of living of the people has led to the federal government formation of programmers such as national Agency for Poverty eradication Programmes (NAPEP), NEEDS, PAP etc.
All these were mainly to improve the living condition of the neglected majority in the rural areas, creating employment in rural areas through the improvement of indigenous technology and establishment of small scale industries.
The role of cooperatives in the generation of employment will be a variable tool in reducing poverty and inequality as a result of an increased demand for labour.
The following factors are some of the problems of unemployment in Awka South Local Government Area
- Immobility of labour
- Inadequate educational planning in the area
- Slow rate of Economic growth
- Lack of cooperative spirit
- Low level of education in the area
- Lack of assets to credit facilities
- Use of capital intensive methods of production
- Greater attraction of wage in urban areas than the rural areas
The general objective of the study is to identify the function/role of cooperative in employment creation in Awka South Local Government area of Anambra State.
The specific objectives are as follows
- To find solution to local problem of employment
- To know the type of unemployment in Awka South Local Government Area
- To find out the factors which affect/hinder cooperative in creation of employment
- To know how the government assist cooperative in generation of employment
- To know if cooperative societies have the potential to create employment for the growing population in Awka South Local Government Area.
- To find out whether cooperative can reduce the rate of unemployment in Awka South Local Government Area
- To know if cooperative area willing to generate employment.
To find out the function/role of cooperatives in employment creation in Awka South Local Government Area. The following are the research questions.
- What are the potentials of cooperatives in creating employment?
- How do cooperative contribute to employment creation?
- What are the problems faced by cooperatives in generating employment or job opportunity?
- What are the consequences of generating employment by cooperatives?
- How does illiteracy and semi-literacy of the cooperative societies constitute a set-back in that effort towards employment creation?
- Significance of the study
- It helps cooperatives to know whether they have all it takes to generate
- It will help cooperative members to understand their aims, objective achievements target and especially people comment about then.
- It will help to know areas which cooperative could generate
- The effectiveness of cooperative in employment generation will be easy to measure by the government.
- The researcher feels that the unemployed citizens of Awka South Local Government Area would be desperate to join cooperative societies registered according to the requirement of Act 90 of 1993, so as to hold movable and immovable property and also have legal rights of business operations.
- Scope and limitation of the study
Scope of this study centered on “cooperatives” a strategy for generating employment opportunities in Anambra State; it covered only Awka South Local Government Area for the period of 2010-2013 activities.
The researcher encountered problems during the course of carrying out this study. Some of this problem includes;
Lack of funds: Because of inadequate fund, researcher was unable to travel to some places to distribute questionnaires to the respondents
Time factor: The period to carry out this study was limited because the researcher has other academic schedules such as attend classes for lectures ad preparations for final exams. As a result of this, the researcher was not able to cover other important areas
Inadequate materials: there is no enough materials with regards to this topic and makes it difficult for researcher to obtain more information.
Cooperative: It is an autonomous association of persons who united voluntarily to meet their social, economic and cultural needs and aspiration through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise.
Unemployment: it is a situation where there are people who are willing and able to work, who are actively seeking for work but find no job.
Employment: This is a situation where people are engaged in productive venture and are paid for their effort with which they earn a living with it.
Labour: It is the percentage of the population actually at work or able and actively for jobs.
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Project topic: COOPERATIVES: A STRATEGY FOR GENERATING EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN ANAMBRA STATE (A CASE STUDY OF AWKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
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