Influence Of Child Abuse On The Adjustment Of Pupils In Primary Schools

Influence Of Child Abuse On The Social Adjustment Of Pupils In Primary Schools In Enugu South Local Government Area


The topic of this research is “The influence of Child Abuse on the Social Adjustment of Pupils in Primary Schools in Enugu South Local Government Area. The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of child abuse on the social adjustment of pupils in primary schools in Enugu south local government area. The population of the study was 400 the design of this study is descriptive survey. The method of data collection were a structured questionnaire which was subjected to face and content validity and tested for reliability. The data was analyzed using simple percentage. At the end, the researcher made the following findings. That difficulty in controlling anger causes child abuse that many forms of child abuse are caused by ignorance, that child has resulted in prostitution, criminal and anti-social behavior etc. that child abuse is responsible for the increase in the crime wave in Nigeria today.



1.1     Background of the Study

Child abuse is defined as the international, unintentional or well-intentional acts that endanger the physical, emotional, and moral and health development of the child. Child abuse is a social problem experienced worldwide and as such is not specific to any country whether developed, developing. Often the severe emotional and physical damage to abused children does not surface until adolescence or even later, when many abused children become abusing parents. An adult who was abused as a child often has establishing long lasting and stable person relationship. These men and women may have trouble with physical closeness, touching, intimacy and trust as adults. The statistics of abused children stand at hundreds of thousands. Children are abused and neglected each year by parents, close relationship or caregivers.

Communities recognize that the emotional or “hidden bruises” inflicted on children as result of child abuse and neglect can be healed or treated. Early recognition and treatment is important to minimize the long term effect of physical and emotional abuse. Child abuse is an important social issue which has attracted the research to place more emphasis on child’s labour, sex, verbal abuse, denial of food and battering. At this juncture, one may ask this question who is a child? What is abuse and neglect? Then what is child abuse and neglect?.

Adesanya (2000) defined a child as a person of either sex who is under the influence of the parents, guardians or any other person and not, as was unsuccessfully contented. He also maintained that any person has not attained the age of twenty-one is till a child.

Child abuse is the physical, psychological or sexual wrongful or harmful way thereby constituting detriment to the object in question. Neglect is a pattern of failing to provide for the basic needs of a person or thing, to the extent that the failure has a harmful effect.

Eckenrode (1993) opined that neglected or physically or sexually abused children performed poorly on standardized test, received lower grades, were more likely to repeat a grade and have more discipline referrals than non-maltreated children. He continues that maltreated children, neglected children showed the poorest academic performance and physically abused children had the most discipline problems. Therefore, in trying to analyze the phenomenon of child abuse and neglect with regards to the project topic, it is necessary to ask ourselves these questions.

  1. Has an academic achievement any relationship with abuse and neglect?
  2. Can child abuse and neglect affect academic performance of the pupils?
  3. How can the incidence of child abuse and neglect be minimized in our society?

One would find children hawking on thing or the other in almost every street in Enugu South Local Government Area. Some parents gave out their children to serve illiterates or ignorant. To my opinion, they bear children on the philosophy that child bearing is a criteria for determination of wealth and richness.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Child abuse seen in the form of neglect, abandonment, maltreatment, deprivation, verbal abuse and labour which are meted out on the child by parents or guardians as a corrective measure on disciplinary procedure to sanity have done more harm than good. An abused child exhibit more aggressive behavior meaningful relationship with peers and adults. For instance, denial of food may lead the child to have a stealing habit, frequent flogging by parents or guardians may bring about societal isolation, the withdrawal of societal order becomes altered. Sexual abuse may bring about the child becoming a prostitute and or a rapist. The act of abuse by abusive parents and guardians had affected the children greatly.

Child abuse is not a new phenomenon but has gone to its peak that it needs to be investigated. The major trust of this research is to examine the influence of child abuse on the social adjustment of pupils in primary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area.

Child abuse and neglect is such pressing ill-treatment which is being confronted by World Bodies like the U.N.O, W.H.O and UNCEF and the some non-governmental organizations like the WACOL (Women aid Collective).

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to find out the influence of child abuse on the social adjustment of pupils in primary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area.

1.4     Scope of the Study

This study was limited to Enugu South Local Government Area. The researcher sampled twenty schools of the numerous schools in Enugu South Local Government Area.

1.5     Significance of the Study

This study is designed to identify the influence of child abuse on the social adjustment of pupils in primary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area. The researcher has no doubt that the research will enable the parents and guardians in Enugu South to understand that some of their behviour towards their children and wards constitute to abuse. Again, it will enable them to know the effects of child abuse on their children and try to stop it. Moreover, to advise government and non-governmental bodies to provide enlightenment campaigns to redress the issue of child abuse.

Finally, it is expected that the result of the project and the recommendation that are offered will make parents, guardian, teachers and the child to benefit form this study.

1.6     Research Questions

  1. What practices constitute abuse?
  2. Does child abuse affect the mental development of children?
  3. Does child abuse greatly the education of the child?
  4. What are the causes of child abuse and neglect?
  5. What are the affects of child abuse and neglect on the social adjustment of the victims?
  6. Can the social welfare officials and good spirited individuals help to control abuse?
  7. Can parents in controlling child abuse?




Code-Switching and Code-Mixing have become a dominant feature in the spoken English of most Students in Anambra State. This research work carried out in some selected schools in Orumba South Local Government Area of Anambra State confirms this assertion. Through the questionnaire administered on about fifty respondents of the target population, the researcher could establish that the average child of the community starts to become bilingual from the primary school stage of his education. This, in effect, makes code-switching and code-mixing manifest in the child’s linguistic performance right from his early age. Continue reading CODE MIXING AND CODE SWITCHINGIN IN SCHOOLS.