DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PROGRAMMABLE STREET LIGHT CONTROLLER
This project presents the design and construction of a programmable street light controller using AT89C52 microcontroller as the controlling device. The system switches on street lights at night and turns them off once darkness disappears in the morning. In this project, an algorithm was developed for the system of operation, and the control program was developed from the algorithm in Assembly language. This project uses Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) as its sensor for monitoring application. Real-time simulation was done using Proteus software so as to ascertain the workability of the design in real life. Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) was carried out to determine the cost of the project. The prototype was constructed and it tested ok
1.1 Background of Study
Street lighting, one of the most essential services provided by government and communities, is a cost and management challenge. New technological advances can deliver up to 50% reductions in energy usage. Smart control, including proactive maintenance, can slash annual operating costs significantly.
The idea of designing a controller for street lights that utomatically switches on the lights at nights and also puts off the lights in the morning when darkness has disappeared is of great concern to engineers working in community lighting field. Providing street lighting is one of the most important and expensive responsibilities of a city. Street Lighting can account for 10–38% of the total energy bill in typical cities worldwide . Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for public authorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance for economic and social stability. Inefficient street lighting wastes significant financial resources every year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions. Energy efficient technologies and design mechanism can reduce cost of the street lighting drastically.
Manual control of street light is prone to errors and leads to energy wastages and manually dimming during midnight is impracticable. Also, dynamically tracking the light level is manually impracticable. The current trend is the introduction of automation and remote management solutions to control street lighting . There are various numbers of control strategies and methods in controlling the street light system such as design and implementation of programmable based solar power saving system for street lights and automatic traffic controller, design and fabrication of automatic street light control system, automatic street light intensity control and road safety module using embedded system, automatic street light control system, intelligent street lighting system using GSM, and energy consumption saving solutions based on intelligent street lighting control system.
In this project, the interest is to design a microcontroller-based system (controller) that automatically switches on a street light and puts it off in the morning when darkness has disappeared. The system basically consists of a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) as light sensor, Power supply, Relay and Microcontroller.
The principle of operation of an LDR is that its resistance deceases when light intensity increases, and increases with decrease in light intensity (increase in darkness). The light sensor will detect darkness and the signal is used to activate the on/off switching by the microcontroller. The theoretical concept of the light sensor lies behind, which is used in this project as a darkness detector; and its resistance varies according to the amount of light falling on its surface.
The Relay is thus used to do the contact on/off switching .
The microcontroller used in this project is an Atmel product. The type is AT89C52 microcontroller. It handles all the processing of the signal from the sensor and controls all the switching applications.
This project gives the best solution for electrical energy wastage. Also the manual operation of the lighting system is completely eliminated.
It is very useful for commercial sign boards, advertising boards, street lights for automation lighting system. The system switches on the lights only at preprogrammed timings.
However, with the advancement of technology, particularly in the field of microcontrollers, all the activities in our day to day living have become a part of information and microcontrollers are found at each and every application . Thus microcontroller acts as the brain of this project.
1.2 Problem Statement
The traditional street light control system uses manual switching method for its operation. Such method may be done using switch gears or fuses. The problems associated with the use of switch gears and fuses are:
1) Risk of electric shock due to switching on and off of the street lights by humans.
2) Use of manpower is needed which brings about cost of labour.
3) Manpower training of personnel in-charge of the switching is usually involved.
4) Inefficiency is sometimes observed as street light attendants or personnel are reluctant to go and switch street lights ON or OFF on time. Many a times, street lights are ON even in the day time, thereby wasting the electrical energy that could have been used for another thing.
The controller may be made automatic using devices like 555 timer. But the use of this device is not reliable in a wide range setting where large number of street lights are used. For such an application, the use of programmable controller cannot be over- emphasized.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
Aim: To design and construct a programmable street light controller that is capable of turning on street lights at nights, and putting them off when darkness disappears in the morning. These will be done without human intervention.
Objectives: This project will be achieved using the following set objectives:
1) To develop a program in Assembly language so that when the microcontroller executes it, the project is achieved.
2) To design an embedded system that is capable of switching on street lights at night and switching them off in the day.
3) To carry out the real-time simulation of the design so as to check the workability of the design in real life.
1.4 Significance of the Project
The project is very important to the general society in many ways. Firstly, it is a programmable controller and does not require human intervention once it starts operation. Secondly, being a computerized system, its accuracy is totally guaranteed. On itself, it switches on all the street lights at night, and once darkness disappears in the morning it turns off all the lights. Thirdly, it is a surest way of controlling a street light operation. Being a programmable system, the system is not bulky and requires a few number of components for construction. Fourthly, it is an inexpensive controller as the electronic components are few and the maintainability is low, with very high efficiency in terms of the output gain or overall system performance.
1.5 Scope of Work
Although the project can be designed using different devices, but this one was done using a microcontroller. The work covers the use of Atmel microcontroller 89C52 to design the street light controller. The control program was written in Assembly language using MIDE software, though it could be written in any embedded system programming language like C++. The choice of any light-controlled sensor is possible but this project uses Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) as its sensor for monitoring application. The real-time simulation was done using Proteus software and a prototype was constructed. The testing of the project was limited to the use of one bulb for simplicity.
1.6 Project Work Plan
The project organization is arranged in chapters. Each chapter covers a distinct degree of work done which links the other.
Chapter one is the Introduction. It covers the background of the project (what a reader needs to know in order to understand the basic principle of operation of the system). Chapter two is the Literature Review. It deals with past related works which people have done in the past. Other important literatures about components and software used were also discussed in this chapter.
Chapter three covers the Methodology, which is the step by step taken to achieve the project. Here the block diagram of the proposed system was developed and analyzed. The algorithm for the system of operation was formulated (both the flowchart and the pseudo code).
Chapter four is the System Analysis, Design, construction, and testing. In this chapter, both the circuit diagram and the software development were achieved. The program was developed from the algorithm. Real-time simulation was done to ascertain the workability of the system in real life.
Finally, chapter five is Conclusion and Recommendation; followed by references and appendix. The appendix contains the control program developed for the system of operation and bill of engineering measurement and evaluation.
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Project topic:DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PROGRAMMABLE STREET LIGHT CONTROLLER
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