Bank-Recapitalization And The Growth Performance Of Nigerian Banks

Bank- Recapitalization And The Growth Performance Of Nigerian Banks (1986-2007)


This paper reviews the perspective of banking recapitalization and growth performance in Nigeria, since 1986 to date. It notes four eras of banking sector reforms in Nigeria, viz: the post-SAP (1986-1993), the Reforms Lethargy (1993-1998), Pre-Soludo (1999-2004) and post Soludo (2005-2007). Using both descriptive statistics and econometric methods, three sets of hypothesis were tested: firstly that each phase of reforms  culminated in improved incentives; secondly that policy reforms which results in increased capitalization, exchange rate devaluation; interest rate restructuring and abolition of credit rationing may have had positive effects on real sector credit and thirdly that implicit incentives which accompany the reforms had salutary macroeconomic effects. The empirical results confirm that eras of pursuits of market reforms were characterized by improved incentives. However, these did not translate to increased credit purvey to the real sector. Also while growth was stifled in eras of control, the reforms era was associated with rise in inflationary pressures. Among the pitfalls of reforms indentified by the study are faulty premise and wrong sequencing reforms and a host of conflicts emanating from adopted theoretical models for reforms and above all, frequent reversals and/or non sustainability of reforms. In concluding, the study notes the need to bolster reforms through the deliberate adoption of policies that would ensure convergence of domestic and international rate of return on financial markets investments.   Continue reading Bank-Recapitalization And The Growth Performance Of Nigerian Banks


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Role of information communication technology in family economic development and environmental management

The Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization on the Nigerian Economy.

The implication of globalization for the Nigerian economy





The research was designed to find out the role of information communication Technology in family Economics Development and Environmental management in Isiuzo L.G.A in Enugu state. The Design of the study is the survey method. The subjects for the study comprised of number of people or items considered to be representative of the entire family Economic development and Environmental management. The research adopted this design because its result would permit generalization and it will allow the use of number of subjects to increase its generalizability. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the Data for the research. It was Analyzed using simple percentage. From the funding, it was observed that information communication Technology in family economic development and Environment management we find that children using computers and Electronic games may adopt the kinds of sustained and awkward postures that are associated with minuscule skeletal disorder in working adult. We observed from the data in above that information communication technology have both negative and positive effects. On the basis of finding the government regulatory agencies must also come to the tore in this important fight against the negative effects of information communication technology. It is with the overall   effort of all that the society can really benefit more from information communication technology.




In recent times, information communication technology (ICT) which basically involves the use of electronic gadget especially computers for storing, analyzing and distributing data, is having influence on almost all aspect of individual families, lives, the national economy and the entire human environment. Continue reading ROLE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN FAMILY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

The Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization on the Nigerian Economy.

The Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization on the Nigerian Economy.



2.1 Literature Review

There has been a consensus among the scholars of the Third World extraction that globalization is not a new phenomenon. The new phase has however assumed new dimension to further undeveloped and entrench dependency in Africa. According to Stiglitz (2002:62), globalization is:- A new social architecture of cross-border human interactions – in which the integrity of the national territories state as a coherent political economy is eroded, as the functions of the state became re-organized to adjust the domestic economic and social policies…

Again, Nabudere (2000:16) sees globalization as an unequal process of capitalist development. He posits that uneven and unequal economic opportunities are characteristics of the present capital modernization. This process is reflected in the unequal integration and fragmentation of many communities, especially, what came to be called the “The World”, in the process f the unfolding economic, political, social and cultural activity.

More concretely, Ake (1994:22) views globalization as a March of capital all over the world to search for profits, a process reflected in the rich and power of MNCS. He asserts that; It is about growing structural differentiation and functional integration in the world economy; it is about growing interdependence across the globe; it is about the national-state coming under pressure from the surge of transnational phenomenon, about the emergence of a global mass culture driven by mass advertisement and technical advances in mass communication, (Ake, 1994:22-23)”.

The foregoing has shown that the roots of African underdevelopment and Dependency lie with the capitalist expansion globalization are therefore a phase in the process of this expansion. Hoogvelt (2001:68); submits that as an instrument of imperialism, globalization is linked systematically with social exclusion. This means that as globalization proceeds, more and segments of populations as well as whole areas and regions are being excluded from its benefits.

In the same vein, Nnoli (2000:173) consider globalization as imperialism. According to him, globalization is a dynamic phenomenon, which changes in accordance with the laws of capitalist expansion. Consequently, it has assumed different focus in the past such as slave trade, legitimate trade, colonialism and nee-colonialism today, it is simply globalization.

It is implicit therefore that globalization is a relation of domination and exploitation between nations and groups of nations. This relationship takes place at different levels of economic, political, social and so on. In this contribution, Oyebody (2002:48) maintains that the different economic and political strategies such as globalization, liberalization. Privatization, foreign aid and the activities of MNCS are instruments of under-developing and entrenching Dependency in Nigeria and the whole of the developing world. Continue reading The Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization on the Nigerian Economy.

the implication of globalization for the Nigerian economy

The Implication of Globalization for the Nigerian Economy



Background to the Study

There have been phenomenal metamorphose in virtually all aspect of society the world over, Communication have become more rapid, working patterns are changing, markets for goods and services have transformed immensely and money can be moved freely and instantaneously from one country to another with little or no hitches at all. Again, the ace of change seems to have accelerated sharply since the end of the cold war and the emergence of the New World Order (NOW), characterized by unipolarity. This development is called “globalization”. Through the term is relatively new, the process is an old one. The globalization process has been defined by Camdessus (2001:2) as “The growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international flow of capital through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology” More so, Woodward (1996:16) sees globalization as the rapid integration of trade relations productive and investment decisions across the globe.

The economic agents who employ investment capital and technology around to take advantage of environments where their competitive edge can manifest in high returns to accomplish this.

Globalization is therefore a very complex phenomenon. In this light, Nnoli (2002:174) associates it with “the increasing concentration of power and influence over the world economy by groups of corporations, international financial institutions and countries”, globalization interfaces with variations, uncertainties and incompatibilities. Its manifestation and effects are not uniform and unpredictable. Continue reading the implication of globalization for the Nigerian economy

Effect Of Capital Flight On Nigerian Economic Growth And Development

Effect Of Capital Flight On Nigerian Economic Growth And Development.

Background to the Study

In 1960 and early 1970s, when Nigeria was basically agrarian, surviving on agriculture by exporting cocoa, palm produce, timber, cotton and rubber to developed countries. During this period, agriculture contributed to over 60% of the GDP. At this period, the rate of capital outflow from Nigeria was very low compare to the current state of capital flight in the country. In the early1970s, the exploration of crude oil came to limelight and became a major source of revenue for Nigeria and the major foreign reserves and when the price of oil fell, government revenue also fell drastically. The discovery of crude oil has therefore impacted on economic growth and development of the country. (Louis, 1999)

Nigeria is endowed with both natural and human resources. The discovery of crude oil has made Nigeria to be one of the countries with great potential to develop. But the reverse was the case for Nigeria. This means that Nigeria is suffering from “resource curse” which implies the abundance of natural and human resources with a limited growth rate. Despite the abundance of natural resources essential for the development of the country, and that can lead to improvement in the welfare of the economy, the country is still less developed. Resource curse can be traced to mismanagement and corruption. Research has shown that Corruption and mismanagement are one of the determinants of “capital flight”.

A generally acceptable definition of the term ‘capital flight’ can hardly be given, but most times, it is related to capital which is shifted out of developing countries. Lesser and Williamson (1987) defined capital flight as ‘resident capitalc outflow excluding recorded investment abroad’. However, if capital shifts out of developed countries, it is usually termed as capital outflows, investors from developed countries are seen as responding to investment opportunities while investors from developing countries are said to be escaping the high risk they perceive at home (Ajayi, 1997). Thus, according to Schneider (2003), Capital flight involves the outflows of resident capital which is motivated by economic and political uncertainties in the home country. Such lost of resources do not contribute to the expansion of domestic activities or to the improvement of social welfare of domestic resident. On the contrary, they imply forgone goods and services essential to sustaining economic growth. (Beja, 2006). Continue reading Effect Of Capital Flight On Nigerian Economic Growth And Development




  • Background of the Study

Cooperative is very important in the creation of employment opportunity, since its members can came together and put hands to carry out one business or the other.

Cooperative has been in existence since the early days of industrial revolution in the Great Britain between the 18th and 19th centuries, it is a device adopted by the suffering class during industries revolution to amend their condition, and we cannot over-emphasize the role cooperative plays in the generation of employment, improving the people’s standard of living and poverty eradication.

Unemployment could be referred to as any factors of production which is not active and have not been utilized for production. It is an age-long problem and has hindered development. It is crowned with a lot of problems caused by human and nature, and to a great extent, this has been responsible for the poor performance of the some sector of the economy, especially in our country, Nigeria.

In this work, we are looking out to see the roles of cooperatives in the generation of employment opportunities in Awka South Local government Area, Anambra State. All over the world in less developed countries, millions are unemployment forces are without paid employment. The role of cooperative in the creation of employment has attracted the intellectual thoughts of many policy makers and other educated elites in developing nations since their attain of political independence. Continue reading COOPERATIVES: A STRATEGY FOR GENERATING EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN ANAMBRA STATE

the impact of Economic Liberalization on the activities of Nigerian Stock Exchange

the impact of Economic Liberalization on the activities of Nigerian Stock Exchange




The level of development of a nation is dependent on the aggregate investment activities of the different economic units which are as endowed in varying degrees. While some economic Units will have more than their current ic(|tiiremenls, others will have less than enough for current consumption. This situation brings about the existence of deficit and surplus units. At the same time, individual decisions have serious repercussions for the growth of the economy.

A country’s ability to utilize and benefit from its capital market will be greatly hampered if it is limited to its domestic market. However, with increased Global co-operation and economic liberalization, the hitherto limit placed on a country’s capital market has gradually become a thing of the past. This new phenomenon has had a profound effect on the growth and complexity of capital markets. As a result of these developments, domestic markets have now been linked closely with other domestic markets as well as with markets abroad; advancement in information technology makes this possible. Continue reading the impact of Economic Liberalization on the activities of Nigerian Stock Exchange