Larvicidal Effect Of Neem Seed Kernel Extract (Nske) On Anopheles Mosquito Larvae

Larvicidal Effect Of Neem Seed Kernel Extract (Nske) On Anopheles Mosquito Larvae



            Malaria is an acute infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites (plasmodia) and spread by the vector, the female anopheles mosquitoe and is mostly a disease of the tropics (Skuurkamp,1993). Continue reading Larvicidal Effect Of Neem Seed Kernel Extract (Nske) On Anopheles Mosquito Larvae

Risk Factors And Spatial Patterns Of Schistosoma Haematobium Infection Among Children

Risk Factors And Spatial Patterns Of  Schistosoma Haematobium Infection Among School Children In Town School Primary School, In Nkanu East L.G.A


This cross-sectional survey was conducted to precisely determine the prevalence of schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium in Town School Primary School, Umunevo, Amagueze in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. Out of 45 urine samples collected in Town School Primary School, Umunevo, 25 (55.6%) were found to be  infected. More males than females were infected. Children  in 9-12 age group recorded the highest prevalence of (80%). Recommendations are made on its ways of reducing urinary schistosomiasis infecting school children in this region.



Schistosomiasis also known as Bilharziasis is a disease caused by blood flukes (trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. It remains an important public health problem globally with an estimated 200 million cases reported each year (Engels et al, 2002). There are two types of schistosomasis, namely: Urinary Schitstosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium and the Intestinal Schistosomiasis caused by four different dioecious species which are: Schitstosoma manoni, S. mekongi, S. intercalatum and S. Japonicum (Wiset, 1996).

Urinary Schistosomiasis is one of the threatening parasite disease of man (Hagan et al, 2001). The danger it pose the population in endemic area is growing. This is because increased water and energy requirement have led to the development of new breeding places for the snail host (e.g irrigation, projects, dams), for instance, the Volta dam lake in Ghana and Aswan dam lake in Egypt (Hagan et  al ,2005).

People are infected by contact with infested water during their normal daily activities for personal or domestic purposes, such as hygiene and recreation (swimming), or in professional activities such as fishing, rice cultivation, irrigation etc (Kabatereine et al, 2004).


The objectives of this study were:

  1. To determine the prevalence of Schistosomiasis among school children in Town School Primary School, Amagunze
  2. To know the risk factors associated with the infection.
  3. Finally, to educate the school children on how to avoid being infected with the disease.


          Schistosomiasis is the second most socio economically devastating parasitic disease after malaria (The Carter Center, 2008). This disease is most commonly found in Asia, Africa, and South America, in areas where the water contains numerous freshwater snails, which are intermediate host of the parasite. About 85% of the cases reported annually occur in sub-Saharan Africa and over 150,000 deaths are attributable to chronic infection with S. haematobium in this region (Southgate et al, 2005), (Vander et al, 2003). The disease affects many people in developing countries, particularly children who may acquire the disease by swimming or playing in cercariae infested waters (The Carter Center, 2008).

Schistosomiasis, also called Bilharziasis, was named after Theodor Bilharz, who first described the cause of urinary Schistosomiasis in 1851. The first doctor who described the entire cycle was Piraja Da Silva in 1908.  Urinary Schistosomiasis was first discovered in soldiers of Napoleon stationed in Egypt between 1779 and 1891 who suffered servere  haematuria.

In Nigeria, urinary Schistosomiasis is known to have existed from time immemorial and might have brought to the country by the migrating Fulani people when they traveled westwards from the Nile Basin (Cowper,1992). The earliest record of urinary Schistosomiasis in Nigeria is that of a  German  explorer who, in 1881, published the occurrence of endemic  haematuria in Bonny province (Akufongwe et al, 1996).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Nigeria is one of the countries most seriously affected by urinary Schistosomiasis and the disease of hyperendemic over large areas (WHO, 2001)

1.1.1            EPIDEMIOLOGY

The disease is found in tropical countries in Africa, the Caribbean, Eastern South America, South East Asia and in the Middle East. Schistosoma mansoni is found in parts of South America and the Caribbean, Africa, and the Middle East; S. haematabium in Africa and the Middle East, and S. japonicum in the far East. S. Mekongi  and S. interculatum are found locally in south east Asia and Central West Africa, respectively.

Schistosomiasis is endemic in 74-76 developing countries, infecting more than 200 million people, half of who  live in rural agricultural and peri-urban areas of Africa and more than 600 million people are at risk (Oliveira et al, 2004), (Carter Center 2008).

Of the infected patients, 20milion suffered severe consequences from the disease, and 120 million are symptomatic. Some estimate show that approximately 20, 000 deaths related to Schistosomiasis occur yearly. In many areas  Schistosomiasis infects a large proportion of children under 14 years of age (satayathum et al, 2006). An estimated 600 million people world wide are at risk from the disease (Engels et al, 2003).

A few countries have eradicated the disease, and many more are working towards it. The World Health Organization is promoting these efforts. In some cases, urbanization, pollution, and /or consequent destruction of snail habitat has reduced exposure, with a subsequent decrease in new infectious. The most common way of contacting Schistosomiasis in developing countries is by wading or swimming in lakes, ponds and other bodies of water that are infested  with the intermediate host snails (usually of the Biomphalaria, Bulinus, or Oncomelania genus). (De Cassia et al, 2007).

1.1.2            PATHOLOGY

          The eggs of S. haematobium provoke granulomatous inflammation, ulceration, and pseudopolyposis of vesicle and urethral walls. Adult are found in the venous  plexuses around the urinary bladder and the released eggs transverse the wall of the bladder causing haematuria and fibrosis of the bladder. The bladder becomes calcified, and there is increased pressure on ureters and otherwise known as hydronephrosis. Kidney failure deaths due to urinary tract scarring, deformity of ureters and the bladder caused by S. heamatobium infection have become less common due to modem drugs, (Gryseels et al, 2006), (King et al, 2002). Inflammation of the genitals due to S. haematobium may contribute to the propagation of HIV (Leutscher et al, 2005). Studies have also shown the relationship between S. haematobium infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder (Khurana et al, 2005).

Schistosomiasis can be divided into three phases:

  1. The migratory phase lasting from penetration to maturity
  2. The acute phase which occurs when the schistosomes begin producing eggs,
  3. The chronic phase which occurs mainly in endemic areas (Black, 2005).

1.1.3            LIFE CYCLE

The free swimming, infective larval cercariae penetrates the human skin when exposed to contaminated  water. The cercariae enter the blood stream of the host where they travel to the liver to mature into adult  flukes. In order to avoid detection by the immune system of the host, the adult worm have the ability to coat themselves with host antigen (Black, 2005). After a period of about three weeks the young flukes migrate to the bladder to copulate. The female fluke lays as many as 3,000 eggs per day eggs which migrate to the lumen of the urinary bladder and ureters. The eggs are eliminated from the host into the water supply with micturition. In fresh water, the eggs hatch forming free swimming miracidia which penetrate into the intermediate snail host, Bulinus Species (Black, 2005). Inside the snail, the miracidium sheds

its epithelium and develops into a mother sporocysts. After two weeks daughter sporocysts are formed. Four weeks after the initial penetration of the miracidium into the snail, furcocercous cercariae (infective stage) being to emerge from the snail. The cercariae cycle from the top of the water to the bottom for three days in the search for a human host. Within half an hour the cercariae enter the host epithelium (Roberts and Janovy, 1996).

1.1.4            SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease and infections are subclinically symptomatic, with mild anaemia being common in endemic areas.

The first symptom of the disease is an intense initiation and skin rash (dermatitis) formally called swimmers’ itch, which occurs within 24hours of the infection at the site of cercarial penetration as a result of hypersensitvity reaction (James, et al, 2006). After an incubation period of about 4-6 weeks, there is fever (Katayama fever) with general weakness and prostration which are often mistaken for that of malaria, followed by cough and pulmonary reactions as the parasites migrate through the lungs (Dalton et al, 2004). As the worm grows to maturity in the hepatic portal veins, the patient may complain of loss of appetite and weight.

Intestinal symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea (which may be bloody).

Urinary symptoms many include frequent urination, painful urination (dysuria), and blood in the urine (haematuria). Haematuria is the most characteristic sign of urinary schistosomiasis

Other symptoms of schistosomiasis may include slight hepatitis, hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, Eosinophilia and Genital sores.

1.1.5            DIAGNOSIS

The presence of microhaematuria is detected using combi-9-strip, a reagent strip which can also be used to detect the presence of protienuria. Detection of blood and protein in the urine sample is just a subjective of the disease and is not confirmatory. A confirmatory diagnosis of the disease is by detecting a terminal spine ova in the urine sample of the patient (Cheesbrough, 1999). This diagnosis method is most commonly carried out owing to its simplicity and low cost. The eggs are rarely found in faeces.

Other diagnostic methods of the disease include x-rays examination of the bladder wall for calcified eggs, ultrasonograph and serological tests (complement fixation test), Betonite Flocculation Test and Interadermal Skin Test using antigen prepared from cercariae and adult worms. A rapid diagnostic antibody test in the form of dipstick has also been developed and it is in current use in Egypt (El-khoby et al, 1998). This diagnostic method above is not in use in this part of the world owing to their high cost and unavailability. An immunodiagnostic assay for Schistosoma haematobium infection is based on two systems. One is based on the detection of antibodies produced by the hosts’ immune response to the specific adult worm-microsoma antigen using the Falcon Assay Screening Test (FAST), Enzyme Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (ELISA) and Enzyme Linked Immune-electro Transfer Blot (ELTB). The other is based on the detection of circulation of schistosomal antigen using monoclonal antibodies. The soluble genus of specific adult worm antigens include Circulative Anodic Antigen (CAA) and the Circulatory Soluble Egg Antigen (CSEA) (Parija, 1998).

Al-shebing et al, (1999) showed that sensitivity of detecting  Schistosoma haematobium, circulatory antigens and antibodies improved significantly, when a combination of urine CCA and serum CAA were used for detecting circulation of antibodies against Schistosoma haematobium  adult worm –microsomal antigen. Detection of soluble antigen will not only quantify the parasite load but will also detect recent infections.



          Preventing is best accomplished by eliminating the water-dwelling snails that are the natural reservoir of the disease. Acrolein, Copper Sulphate, and Niclosamide   can be used for this purpose. Recent studies have suggested that snail population can be controlled by the introduction of, or angementation of exiting, crayfish populations, as with all ecological interventions, however, this technique must be approached with caution.

In 1989, Aklilu Lemma and Legesse Wolde Yohannes received the Right Livelihood Award for their research on the use to sarcoca plant to control the snails. Concurrently, Dr chidzeve of Zimbabwe researched the similar Gopo berry  during the 1980s and found that it could be used in the control of infected freshwater snails. In 1981, he drew attention to his concerns that big chemical companies denigrated the Gopo Berry alternative for snail control. Reputedly Gopo Berries from hotter Ethiopia climates yield the best results. Later, further studies were conducted between 1993 and 1995 by the Danish Research Network for international health, and the results was the same with the Gopo Berries (Molgaard et al, 2000).


For many years from the 1950s onwards, civil engineers built vast dams and irrigation schemes, oblivious to the fact that they would cause a massive rise in water-borne infections like schistosomiasis. The detailed specifications laid out in various UN documents since the 1950s could have minimized this problem.

Irrigation schemes can be designed to make it hard for the snails to colonize the water, and to reduce the contact with the local population (Charnock, 2000). Bridges should also be constructed in endemic areas where mostly their source of water supplies  are streams, rivers and ponds


          Education of the populace (mainly those in endemic areas) on the need for proper sanitary condition and hygiene is of paramount important in the prevention and control of urinary  schistosomiasis. They should also be educated on the importance of seeking proper medical attention early, more especially when they experience blood urine and pains during urination.

          Defeacation or urination in or near open water or stream should be avoided so that snails will have less chance of becoming infected. There is also need to make use of protective covering like rubber boots if there is any need to enter an infected water. In Bao-uniao,in Brazil, the use of rubber boots during field work has been shown to reduce the transmission of urinary schistosomiasis by preventing contact with cercariae- infected water  (Gazzinelli et al, 1997).    

1.1.7            TREATMENT

Schistosomiasis is readily treated using a single oral dose of the drug praziquantel annually (The Carter Centre, 2008). As with other major parasitic diseases, there is ongoing and extensive research into developing a schistosomiasis vaccine that will prevent the parasite from completing its life cycle in humans.

The World Health Organization has developed guidelines for community treatments of schistosomiasis based on the estimate intensity of infection among children in endemic villages (WHO, 2006).

When a village reports more than  50 percent of children having blood in their urine, everyone in the village receives treatment (WHO, 2006).

When 20 to 50 percent of children have bloody urine, only school-age children are treated (WHO, 2006).

When less than 20 percent of children have symptoms, mass treatment is not implemented at all (WHO, 2006).

The Bill & Melinda Gates foundation has recently funded an operational research program-the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) to answer strategic questions about the way forward in schistosomiasis control and elimination. The focus of SCORE is on development of tools and evaluation of strategies for use in mass drug and administration campaigns.

Antimony has been used in the past to treat the disease. In low doses, this toxic mettalloid bonds to sulfur atoms in enzymes used by the parasite and kills it without harming the host. This treatment is not referred to in present day peer- review scholarship; praziquantel is universally used. Outside of the U.S, there is a second drug available for treating Schistosoma mansoni (exclusively) called Oxaminique.

Mirazid, an Egyptian drug, was under investigation for oral treatment of the disease up untill 2005. The efficacy of Praziquantel was proven to be about 8 times that of Mirazid and therefore it was not recommended as a suitable agent to control Schistosomiasis (king et al, 2002).

Experiments have shown that medicinal castor oil is an oral-penetration agent to prevent Schistosomiasis and that praziquantel effectiveness depended upon the vehicle used to administer the drug (e.g., cremophor/castor oil) (salafsky et al, 1999).

Problems Of Air Pollution In Enugu Urban Area

Problems Of Air Pollution In Enugu Urban Area, A Case Study Of Enugu Urban


Years back, the attention given to air pollution was too low dispute its contribution to most of the ill health that the populace suffer from one space to another through air.  In this research work, the effects of air pollution as it effects the populace that are residing in the study area was considered. The approach was based on the data collected from the questionnaire observation and interviews in the chosen zones. From analysis, result shown in the table 4. 7c proved that places of high human and this was ascertained when the calculated valuex2 of 11. 63 is greater than the critical value of 9.49. In conclusion it is clear in the work the air pollution has a serious effects in the more populated zones.




Air population is defined by the new encyclopedia Britanica (1999) as the change in biological condition in the environment, which is harmful and effect  the quality of human life, including effect on  other animals and plants, industries, culture and aesthetic assets. Although air pollution is attributed generally to material substances, like gases, particulate matters, solid wastes paper glass and non-material substance like excess of noise and as well as water, land and air. Therefore air pollution then occur where people and their activities are contracted.  Air pollution then, is the case when the air is considered polluted through the alterations in its composition and condition, either directly or indirectly as a result of the activities of man. So that it becomes less suitable for some or all of the uses fir which it would have been in its natural states. Therefore air pollution is increasingly becoming a problem in Enugu urban.

Man is the main polluted in enugu urban. The uses up energy directly from natural resource like coal , to manufacturing and production, thereby cresting problems of disposal or  waste material from the manufactured goods. Cities have grown in an unmonitored manner, which then led to problems of environmental pollution. The environmental pollution of big cities can be related to the environmental deterioration of Enugu urban. This is why a clean up campaign tagged “Operation keeps Enugu Clean” was declared, the need for preservation and protection of Enugu, also brought about the introduction of an environmental protection body called Enugu state environmental protection agency, which is known as Enugu state weast management agency (ESWAMA)


          Air pollution has been a series problem facing urban now; it has hazardous effect on the environment.  It destroys the environment, water and soil, thus the effect of pollution on any of the basic biological necessities of man, are normally disastrous. Illness and   death of man can be easily associated with a polluted air. Air pollution are known to produce eye and respiratory irritation in human, as well as animals. Generally the health and physical well being of all individual who breathe polluted air is affected, worse still man is losing the taste of good air. Water pollution problems are death to both man the aquatic life, it increase water born disease, changes the colour and salinity of the water and as well make way for scarcity of available pollution water through pollution of the sources.

Noise pollution can affect a person psychological and physical well –being, people who are exposed to loud noises of long duration have an increase in blood pressure and mental disorderliness. Loud noises pf long duration has increase in blood pressure, and mental disorderliness.

Loud pollution leads to reduction in the fertility of the soil and conversely reduce productivity, it as well make way for other sources of pollution like of under ground water.  The health implication of pollution cannot be over stressed; the hazards caused by pollutant on the inhabitants of any area can be devastating.


The aim and objective of the study is to enhance and develop important measures to the pollution in the environment which if considered and applied will lead to increased and better standard of living potentials in the environment this can be achieved through the following objectives.

  1. To determine the general awareness of the public on air pollution
  2. Identify major in the study area
  3. Identify the sources of air pollution
  4. Identify the effect of air pollution on inhabitants


          In order to carry out the research effectively the

Following questions are asked.

  1. What is the level of awareness of air pollution?
  2. What are the sources of air pollution?
  3. What is the health effect of air pollution?
  4. What measures are put in place to reduce air pollution?
  5. How effective are the measures that are put in place

1.4              HYPOTHESIS

  1. HI: There is a strong relationship between wind speed and directed and air pollution.
  2. H0: there is a week relationship between speed and directed and air pollutants.

iii. Hi: there is a strong relationship between temperature variation and the rate of air pollutants.

  1. Ho: there is a weak relationship between temperature variation and the rate of air pollutants.

The significance of the study is to make the public understand fully what air pollution is, the effect it can have on their various activities. It also to enable them participate with government agencies and authorities in finding control measures for air pollution. The problem of air pollution is a global concern with rapid urbanization and industrialization. The air is being polluted by the activities of man. This leads to unhealthy and unsafe environmrnt to live in and something has to be done to reduce the level of air pollution in order to reduce the hazards associated with it.


This research on the problem of air pollution in Enugu a area is of significance because of threat, it poses on the lives of the people of Enugu urban area. The problem of air pollution helps to make the public understand fully, what air pollution is and the effect it can have on their various activities. It also enables the public to participate with government agencies and authorities in finding control measure for air pollution. Those that will benefit from this research include government authorities like ENSWAMA, which is responsible for keeping the environment clean. The health sector will also find this research useful because some air pollutants are health hazards. Agriculturists also are not left out as some air pollutants affect the growth and productivity of crops and livestock. This research will be immense benefit to environmentalist and some NGO’s carrying out research on air pollution.

The researches encounter some problems during this research study. This problem causes some limitation to the effectiveness of this research. There were limited resources to carryout all that require to be done because of the dearth of book in our libraries, literature, materials etc. Another problem was the shortness of the time allocated for this project.


Enugu urban lat 6:27N 70 27 1/E, the capital of Enugu State and locate at the foot of UDI escarpment Enugu urban /or the state covers the government residential. Area New Heaven and Independence Layout, Uwani /Achare Layout/Maryland to the south and Ogbete /Iva Valley to the west. Enugu Urban environment includes the central business district (cbd), Emene Industrial Layout, the high-density residential Area Of Abapka  Nike and its neighbourhood. Enugu has a rapid population growth, which in turn affects the morphology of the town. Today, single-family houses, usually bungalows and two story buildings and some three or more storey apartment houses predominate the urban environment. Some of the residential area lack environment “play space” impairing air  between their high rise development thus impairing air movement and generating urban movement heat  and misdirected “ corridor flows”. It is no gainsaying that domestic pollution could from kitchen smoke, improper household cleaning and maintenance, clogged and unsightly drainage, stench from improper environment sanitation and improper collection and disposal of human and animal wastes and the perennial problem of improperly managed garbage dumps. Tree as shade plants serve as thermal moderators, plants generally are good absorbers of pollution and toxic materials in the air and in the soil, whether indoor or outdoor. These were abundant in Enugu before the development craze. Today hey are being consumed in the carve out syndrome ( leucaster and brown ,2007).


The scope of the study limited to Enugu urban, due to the number of neighbourhood in enugu urban. Four of the neighbourhoods chosen include Emene layout Ogbete Layout, ogui-new layout and Achara layout.


The write up of this research is in five chapters. Chapter one deals with the introduction of the study and intended achievement of the study. This is donbe by the exposition of the statement of problem, the study area, the aims and objectives of the study, research question, the significance of the study, the scope of the study and the plan of the study.Chapter two deals with reviewing of available literatures related to the topic of research.

Chapter three deals with the research methodology on applied in carrying out the research. It reveals the types of data needed, source and method of data collection, sampled population, method of data processing and method of data analysis.

Chapter four deals with data presentation and analysis of findings.

Chapter five deals with recommendation and conclusion.



Miller (2007) reported that air land, water and noise pollution started with the first man on earth. Since then pollution has been growing in extent and pungency. Pollution is only one of the ways in which man alters the natural world. It operates through changing the levels and sometimes the natures of the chemicals and physical factors on which the composition and productivity of living organism depends. According to Faith (2005). Air pollution is as old as history itself. Over the centuries some have increased in seventy, while other have diminished, but some discouraging new problem have emerged, due to the heavy over population and increased in technology and industrialization.

Stewart (2004) stated that without air of good quality there cannot be life and without air of good quality there cannot be a healthy life. Air pollution is an old problem that has this century consumed wild economic social significance. Exposure to pollutant such as particulate matter and ozone has been found to associate with increases in hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and mortality in many cities in Europe and other continents. Resent studies have also tried to quantify the health effects caused by ambient air pollution example within the “Global burden of disease” Projects of the World Health Organization (WHO) it has been estimated that world wide, close to 6.4 million years healthy life are lost due to long term exposure to ambient particulate matter ( Wark and Warner, 2007).

Breuer and Varmer (2005) reported that pollution of the environment is a man made problem, and can be solved by man. A simplest method of solving it would be to stop those activities that result in pollution. This method however cannot be applied since anthropogenic activities cannot be separated from air pollution, but man can reduce and change his activities such that pollution can be held below a critical threshold value so that the environment can take care of the pollutants without being endangered. According to Oboh 2004, pollution causes distress and problem upon man, animals and plant life. The economic consequence of this is that, pure or relatively pure air is no longer a free things , yet those who are responsible for pollution do not bear the cost of the pollution they created.


The major air pollutants according to pardon to Anderson       (2007) can be classifies thus:

  • sulphur oxides (SOs): they are produced when sulphur- containing fuels such as coal or oil areburnt.  Factories where sulphur is used in the manufacturing process also produce them. Oxides of sulphur irritate the breathing passing and can damage lungs (canter, 2006) example is sulphur dioxide, which is a corrosive gas. It cannot be seen or smelled at low levels but can have a “rotten egg” smell at high levels
  • Nitrogen oxides (NOx): Automobile and other engines produce these. They are emitted from the high temperature combustion. Nitrogen make up of about 78% of the air, oxygen 21%, normally these gases do not combine chemically in the air, but in engine that run at very high temperature. They combine to form gas called oxide of nitrogen, which are poisonous. Example is the nitrogen dioxide, which is a reddish- brown gas that comes from the burning of fossil. It has a strong smell at high levels (Jonathan, 2007)
  • Photochemical oxidants: these are formed when oxides of nitrogen combine with other substances presents in automobile exhaust. The photochemical oxidants are the main ingredient of smog, which irritates the eye and breathing passages (Paul and Angeloc, 2007).
  • Particulate matter: this is a solid or liquid matter is suspended in the air. To remain in the, particle usually must be less than 0. 1mm wide and can be small as 0.00005mm. Dust whether natural or produced by human activity is particulate. Another example is fly ash, which result from the burning of fuels (Jonathan, 2007).
  • Ozone: This is a gas that can be found in two places. Near the ground ( the troposphere(, it is a major part of smog. The harmful ozone in the lower atmosphere should nor be confused with the protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) , which screen out harmful ultraviolet rays.
  • Carbon monoxide: This is a gas that comes from the burning of fossil fuels mostly in cars. It cannot be seen or smelled.
  • Hydrocarbon: these are organics solutions that enter the air by evaporating. The vaporize in to air. Hydrocarbons includes; gasoline paints and chemical products (Paul and Angeloc, 2007).
  • Lead: A blue- grey metal that is very toxic and is number of forms and locations
  • Toxic air pollutants: these are large number of chemical that are known or suspected to caner. some important pollutants in this category include arsenic, asbestos, benzene, and dioxin ( Jonathan, 2007)
  • stratosphere ozone depletes: These are chemicals; they are chemical that can destroy the ozone in the stratosphere. These chemical include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, and other compound that include chlorine or bromine (Jonathan, 2007).
  • Greenhouse gases: these are gases, gases that stay in the air for a long time and warm up the planet by trapping sunlight. This is called the “greenhouse effect” because the gases act like the glass in a greenhouse. Some of the important greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous (jonathan2007).


The major causes of air area as follows:

  • Rapid urbanization: Morton (2005) said that an intangible and direct factor that contributes to air pollution is rapid urbanization and growth. Bates( 2006) reported that the adverse effect o urbanization population concentration in metropolitan areas includes air pollution from increase use of automobile, the problem from mass transport system, waste disposal and various health problems. In a particular environment, pollution is determines by the volume of wastes, which depends on the population of that area.
  • Living habits: Collings (2005) suggested that the struggle against poverty is the general cause of air pollution. As real income increases, people consume and buy more things and disposed them quickly. It is therefore typical to find refuse dumps scattered around the street, market and open spaces also in drains, which became blockedand then produces offensive odour that pollutes the air. Martin and Sithole (2004) reported that it is therefore evident that unguided human activities (living habits) and he need to develop are directly responsible for air pollution.
  • Transportation: this is one of the chief sources of the pollutants according to Jones (2005). It is important to know that the exhaust fumes from automobiles enter the air at street level while those from airplanes enter at higher levels. The introduction of gases in to the atmosphere helps in pollution the air.
  • Industrials activities: most of the industrials activities poisonous gases in to the air through factory chimneys. Nuclear and electrical power plants for treating ores and the burning of fossils fuels are all associated with air pollution (Jones ,2005) however, the effects of air  pollution according to volkmer and wises (2004) can be classified as thus:
    • Effect on human health: pollutants can cause disease, including caner, lupus, immune disease, allergies, and asthma. Higher levels of background radiation have led to an increased incidence of cancer and mortality associated with worldwide. Toxic compounds, like mercury and lead, poison organ systems and can lead to brain damage and death. Adverse air quality can kill organism including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain and congestion. Contamination caused by pollution can have damaging effects in the brain and central nervous system (pardon and Anderson 2007).
    • Effects on the environment: climate change on a global scale has been attributed to increased emissions of carbon (Co2), a greenhouse gas. A global average temperature rise of only 1oC could have serious implications. Possible consequences include melting of polar ice caps’ an increase in sea level; and increases in precipitation and serve weather events like hurricanes, tornadoes, heat, floods, and droughts indirect effects include increases in infectious disease, weather- related deaths, and food and water shortages. All these effects put a street on ecosystems and agriculture, and threaten our planet as a whole. Other atmospheric effects of air pollution include urban smog and reduced visibility, associated with ozone-forming nitrogen oxides and volatiles and organic compound emissions sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides combine with water in the atmosphere to cause acid rain, which is detrimental to forests and other vegetation, soil, lakes, and aquatic life. Acid rain also causes monuments and buildings to deteriorate.(Adinna and aetal,2007).
    • Economic effect: he effects of air pollution on human healthand the environment have economic impacts. According to the health people 200 report, each year in the united states:
  • The costs of human exposure to outdoor air pollutants range from $ 40 to $50 billion.
  • An estimated 50,000 to 120,000 premature death are associated with exposure to air pollutants
  • People with asthma experience more than 100 million days of restricted, activity, costs for asthma exceed $4 billion, and about 4,000 people in asthma.
  • The Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) article, “Why is it Better to buy Green Electricity “?  State that acid RIN causes $6 billion a year in damage to crops, forests, lakes, and buildings. The potential economic  impact of global warming is estimated to be in the billions of dollars (Dix 2005)

Antimicrobial Activity Of Ocimum Gratissimum On Dandruff Causing Fungi

Antimicrobial Activity Of Ocimum Gratissimum On Dandruff Causing Fungi


          The antimicrobial activity of fresh aqueous and alcoholic extract of the leaves of Ocimum grattissimum  was tested on some fungi (Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton tonsurans   and Cladosporum sp. which were isolated from patients). The trends of potentialities of inhibition of the extract exhibited after 24-48 hours of inhibition. The aqueous extract had no inhibition activities. The positive effect of the leaf extract on the organism is as a result of the chemical element present which was enhanced by the ethanol.

Key words: antimicrobial activities, Ocimum  gratissimum,  Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton  tonsurans, Cladosporon  sp.



          During the last century, the practice of herbalism becomes mainstream throughout the world. Inspite of great advances observed in modern medicine, plants stills make an important contribution to health care. This is due to the recognition of value of traditional medicine system, particularly of Asian origin, and the identification of medicinal plant from indigenous pharmacopoeias, which have significant healing power. Medicinal plants are distributed worldwide, but they are most abundant in tropical countries (Belazi et al., 2005).

Medicinal plants are the oldest known health care products. The use of medicinal plant with antifungal properties have been on the increase and recently become subject for research.

In many developed and  developing countries, the use of plants derived natural compounds as plant of herbal preparations as alterative role in the general well being of people all over the world. Many of these plants are used in local traditional medicine and have been reported to have useful medicinal value (Edeoga et al., 2003).

In Brazil alone, about 80,000 species of higher pants were described which offer enormous prospects for discovering new compounds with therapeutic property (Nwosu and Okafor, 1995).

Ocimum gratissimum is widely distributed in tropical and warm temperature regions. The plants are commonly used in folk medicine to kill or treat diseases. Such as upper respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, headache, optithalmic, skin diseases, pneumonia, cough fever and conjunctivitis (Edeoga et al., 2003).

Moreover, a lot of work has been done to show the antimicrobial prosperities of this plant to selected pathogens for example Ocimum gratissimum has been reported to be active against several species of bacteria and fungi (Nwosu and Okafor, 1995).


2.1               LITERATURE REVIEW

          Brief history of scent leaf

The beneficial properties of Ocimum gratissimum  (scent leaf) have been recognized all over the world. Each part of the scent leaf has medicinal property (Khan, 1990). The biological, pharmacological and therapeutic, clinical study and medicinal applications of scent leaf along with their safety evaluation have been reviewed by sofowara (1996).

Scent leaf belongs to the family laminaceae, genus and species Ocimum gratissimum. Its common names are high sting scent, stinging scent leaf, common scent leaf, gerrais, ortie and urtiga meaning “scent” is taken from the Anglo-saxon world noedl meaning scent (Khan, 1990). It includes as many as 500 species worldwide. Many species are tropical.

The Ocimum gratissimum grows well in nitrogen-rich soil on the edges of fields, stream banks, waste places and close to stable and human habitations throughout the United States and Europe. The fibrous perennial plant is found throughout the world in temperate regions, from Japan to the Andes Mountains. The plants seeds itself freely from favourable conditions, scent leaf spreads freely from its tough, creeping yellow root. The hairy, erect, single stalks grow in dense cluster giving the plant a bushy look. The stem produces heart-shaped alternate leaves with pointed tips and deeply serrated edges. Leaves are dark green on the top and are a paler green and downy on underside. The plant grows as tall as 4ft (1.2m). Leaves and stems are covered with needle like hairs that pierce the skin on contact. The plant delivers a sharp sting and a lingering irritation caused by a combination of formic acid acetylcholine and 5 hydroxytryptmine Injected through the tiny needle-like hairs.  Cheesbrough, 2002).


Evaluation of biological activities revealed that extract of

  1. gratissmium exerted anti-diarrheal effect in experimental animals. The essential oil was responsible for that effect. (Offiah and Chikwe, 1999). Several scent’s essential oil and lectins chemical showed high antiviral indices against HIV-1 and HIV-2 (Ayisi and Nyadedzcr, 2003) and hypoglycemic activity in rats (Aguiyi et al., 2002). The essential oil of this species also presented interesting activities such as insecticidal (Keita et al., 2001) antibacterial (Nakamura et al., 1999), antifungal (Duby et al., 2000). The essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum and its main component eugenol were efficient in inhibiting bacterial and some fungal growth (Cimanga et al., 2002).


Herbs known as immunostimulants increase the body’s response, and scent is one of the most potent immunostimulant herbs currently available. Along with proven antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal properties, scent assist the body in fighting infections. It does this in two forms; strengthening both the antibody and the cell mediated response to pathogen. The cell-mediated immune response is the body’s first form of defense and scent appears to enhance their activity (shulze et al., 2002).

Scent leaf contains compounds that stimulate cell-mediated immunity. It also contains polysaccharides that induce secretion of cytokines, particularly, interferon, which can fight intercellular infection. Only when the cell-mediated response falls and is unable to stop a slaught does the immune response system become involved. Scent has high levels of immunomodelatory polysaccharides compounds which appears to increase antibody production and the number of plaque forming cells in the spleen (Edeoga et al., 2003).


In the allergy season, mixture of the fresh herb or an

Infusion as a tea reduces the symptoms of hay fever such as itchy eyes and sneezing (Bostian, 1997).

2.6     ASTHMA

Early twentieth century herbalist reported that the juice of the fresh leaves and root or the dried leaves, when burned and inhaled was useful to treat asthma.


Scent leaf extract were documented with anti-inflammatory action in several clinical studies, these actions are attributed to its ability to interrupt the production and actions of inflammation producing immune cells in the body (Schulz et al., 2002).


An ointment preparation of the aerial parts or a strong infusion of the leaves can be applied externally to reduce hemorrhoid which is the swelling of veins near the piles (Maurice, 1993).

Scent leaf have been used as diuretic to build the blood for arthritis, cloths and bandages soaked in the leaf and stem infusion were used in early America machine to stop the bleeding of wounds.

Scent leaf was recommended as a nutritious food and as weight loss aid. In Brazil herbal medicine the entire plants  is used for excessive mental bleeding, diabetes, diarrhea and respiratory problems (Sofowara, 1996).


Here, a small pieces of cotton soaked on a scent decoction and then placed in the nostril can be used to stop a nose bleed (Edeoga et al., 2003).


          The fresh herb thrashed across the skin is used to reduce stinging, burning sensation and the deeper pain of rheumatism. A leaf infusion may also be helpful as supportive therapy for rheumatism ((Schulze  et al ., 2002)


          Clinical studies have confirmed the sting pro ing scent’s benefit to man in reducing the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. A concentrated root extract of scent is sometimes combined with raw palmetto and the back of the pygeum evergreen tree to treat the early stage of the disease (Borer et al., 2002).


          Scent leaf when build with equal parts of vinegar and water, a decoction of the plant particularly, the root is a beneficial and conditioning hair and scalp rinse useful in case of dandruff and thinning (Dubey et al., 2000).

          A scent leaf rinse will enhance the colour of the hair and will also make hair to be shiny.


          Fungi are eukaryotic, spore-bearing organism reproduce both sexually and asexually. They are simple multicellular organisms which are either parasitic or saprophytic (Prescott et al., 2002). Examples includes: molds, yeast, mushrooms. The main body [thallus] of a typical multicellular fungi is a conspicuous network of fine filament called a mycelium. A single filament making up mycelia is called hyphae. The mycelium occasionally develops spore-producing fruiting bodies such as mushrooms and toadstools. Fungi can be parasitic, when they live at the expense of other organism, saprophytic when they live on dead or decaying materials,  or symbionts, when they obtain food in mutual beneficial relationship with plants as in mycorrhizea  (Prescott et al., 2002).

Fungi are important to humans in both beneficial and harmful ways. They can  be beneficial when they serve as decomposers, food and food-aid source e.g. single cell protein, antibiotic sources .e.g. penicillin and research tool in the study of fundamental biological processes. They can be harmful when they are source of allergy or disease, produce lethal toxins or cause food spoilage and deterioration e.g. muccor sp. on bread.

The different array of fungi in an environment is referred to as the mycoflora of that environment.  This mycoflora will include the different fungi in an environment as well as their rates of occurrence. The mycoflora of place and human body depends on  the natural environment. Its ability to source nutrients is a  major determinant fungi availability. Most fungi are saprophytes and are found wherever organic matter is available (Prescott et al., 2002).


Dermatophytes are group of morphologically and physiologically related molds some of which cause well defined infection  (simpanya, 2000). The diseases they cause includes: dermatomycosis, cutaneous mycoses, tineas or ringworm. These diseases occurs world wide and are the most common fungal diseases in man.

Dermatophytes have two important properties, they are keratinolytic and keratinophilic.  keratinolytic fungi are those capable of decomposing keratin remains in the environment and are potentially pathogenic to humans and animals. Keratinophillic fungi are those only able to use materials associated naturally with keratin or resulting from its destruction.

Dermatophytes belongs to a large group of keratinophillic fungi which have a unique ability to invade keratinous  structures of the body such as: hair, skin and nails and thus, cause human and animal disease (Nowak and Brodell, 1999). There are three general of Dermatophytes: Epidermophyton, Trichophyton and Microsporum.

Epidermophyton: This genus has large macroconidia and no microconidia. The macroconidia and thin-walled multicellular club-shaped and clustered e.g. Epidermophyton   floccosum

Microsporum: This genus has both macro and microconidia. The macroconidia are multiseptate with thin or thick echinulate cell walls which are also spindle-shaped and may not be numerous. Microconidia are pyriform and about 2-3nm. The main distinguishing feature is the echinulation on the macroconidia cell wall e.g. Cladosporum spp. and Microsporum spp. (Ashbee and Evans, 2000).

Trichophyton: This genus has smooth- walled macro and micro conidia. The macroconidia are thin-walled and ciger-shaped while microconidia are pyriform or irregular in form. An example is Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton saudanense, Trichophyton   metagrophytes.


          Dermatophytes causes a number of disease and these fungi disease are known as mycosis, and are divided into five groups according to the type of infected tissue in the host (Prescott et al., 2002).

Superficial mycosis

The fungi responsible are limited to the outer surface of the hair and skin, hence, are called superficial e.g. white piedra cause by Trichophyton spp.

  Cutanous mycosis

This is also called dermatomycoses, ringworms or tineas. They represent the most common fungi disease in humans. The three  genera  of  cutanous  fungi: Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichophyton (dermatophytes) are involved in this mycoses. Tinea corporis, tinea pedis, tinea manuum, tinea barbae (Ashbee and Evan, 2000).

Tinea corporis

This is a dermatophyte infection of the smooth or bare parts of the skin. It is Trichophyton rubum, T. tonsurans,

  1. mentagrophytes is characterized by circular, well- demarcated scaly vesiculo pustular eruption. Itching is frequently present (Darke et al., 1996)

Tinea barbae: This is an infection of the beard hair caused by T. mentagrophytes or T. verrucosum and the help of T. soudanense symptoms vary from a fine scale to a vesiculo-pustular eruption. Itching is frequently present. It is predomonatly a disease of men who live in rural areas and acquire the fungi from infected animals.

Cladosporum sp.: this cause disease of skin and hair. The exist in the presence of other fungi they are also very bad contaminants of human, animals and environment.

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