THE TECHNIQUE FOR IMPROVING WORKERS PERFORMANCE IN AN INDUSTRY

THE TECHNIQUE FOR IMPROVING WORKERS PERFORMANCE IN AN INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF PILLAR POLE LIMITED NANKA)

ABSTRACT

Managing employees in an organization is a function which everyone has control over others share in human resources management. Its mistake be left to specialists alone because human materials resources are more difficult to manage than material resources as a result of the conflict between the employers and employees wishes so, for a manager to be successful he must be involve in the effective planning. Organizing, influencing, co-ordinating and controlling of employees and must also understand and be able to use personal management techniques and in addition have some knowledge of the principles in industrial psychology on which they arte based. He must be aware of the result of psychological studies of the employee as an individual or a member of a working group and a person whose behavior is influenced to some extent by his technological environment. This research work is clearly designed to give managers or those who especially are concerned with human resources management workers to greater performance. To ensure analytic and logical presentation this research is organized in five chapters. Chapter one introduces the subject of the study and also gives a brief history of the company of study highlighting the purpose of the study problems, scope, limitations and definition of terms. Chapter two is the review of past literatures which is made up of contribution by well renewed authors and academicians. It also has some prescribed motivation techniques. Chapter three is the research design and methodology and gives a description of the research instruments, sources of data collection and methods, sample size and method of statistical analysis. Chapter four is the presentation and analysis of data based on the responses to the questionnaires. Chapter five forms the summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion.

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The study of improving workers performance is a relatively recent phenomenon. It can perhaps be said to have begun in earnest with the famous Hawthrone studies, conducted by Elton Maye at the Western Electric Company in the 1920s. those engaged in industrial psychology up to this point has been much more interested in examining the effects of physical conditions and equipment design on the productivity of individuals- Elton Mayo and his co-workers started  very much in this tradition, investigating the effect of physical factors on productivity. During the course of their investigation however, they became convinced that factors of a social nature were affecting satisfaction with the job and productivity. The human relation school was born, as seeking to improve the performance.

The implicit assumption was of course that the satisfied workers produce more. Understanding what satisfied a worker consists of the total body of feelings that an individual has about his job. This total body of feelings involves, in affect weighing up the sum total of influences on the job, the nature of the job itself and so on. Improving performance entails improving anyone of those influences, which will lead in the direction of job dissatisfaction, hence poor performance.

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However, what makes a job satisfying or dissatisfying does not depend on the nature of the job but on the expectations that individuals have of what their job should provide. This gave birth to expectancy theory, which points to the importance of the individuals expectations of his job in determining satisfaction.

For individual who have expectation that their job should give them opportunities for say, challenge a failure of the job to meet this expectations will lead to dissatisfaction compared to a situation where no such expectation is involved.

What exact expectation individuals will have of a job may vary for a large number if research, some deriving from social, others from individual causes. The matching of expectation and the actual job has an important implication. Hackman and Lawler (1971:239) for example, found that only individuals who have high need for fulfillment on the job are satisfied by having job which provide the opportunity for such needs to be fulfilled. Most people seen to have higher order needs. Such as these involving self actualization. The classical study by Walker and Guest for example (past) indicates the considerable alienation was bought about by a lack of opportunity for psychological growth and development.

Despite the emphasis on making of expectation to a particular job in many studies, Lorker (1969:309) point out the concept of valve fulfillment rather than, expectations. One might be satisfied, Loeke points out by unexpected promotion, an unexpected rise in salary and one might be satisfied by an unexpected dismissal.

Often values and expectations will coincide, as one tends to confine what one value on the job to what one has some expectation of achieving satisfaction occurs when the job fulfill what one values and just as with expectation, value will vary from group to group.

Factors associated with the individuals needs for psychological with the individual needs psychological growth contribute to job satisfaction. Such include the intrinsic nature of the job and achievement. On the other hand factors associated with job context, such as pay and supervision, when they are deficient leads to dissatisfaction.

Nevertheless, numerous studies have shown that job satisfaction can be improved for many individuals by making fundamental changes in the nature of the job.

Many studies such as that of Walker and Guest (Part II) indicates that enrichment programmes can be successful in increasing performance on the whole and increase the quality, if not quantity of production.

However, Porter, Lawler and Hachman (1974:235) indicate three main characteristics of a motivating job, first the job must allow a worker to fell personally responsible for a manful or otherwise experienced as  worth-while to the individual.

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Thirdly, the job must provide feedback about what is accomplished.

Finally, if the level of independence by workers is high, his degree of participation in decision making will equally be high, this leads to increase productivity and job satisfaction. It is therefore, assumed that in the pillar pole company limited, the higher the level of independence, the higher the degree of participation and the greater the degree of satisfaction derived from the job.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There has been wide spread complaint, comments and write-ups on the poor job performance and the resultant in-impressive productivity of employees.

Some people advance reasons for this ugly phenomenon to the negative attitude of workers ranging from loftening during work hours, idleness to lateness to work etc.

But one may ask were: what is within an individual that makes him behave the way he does?

The human element is the most intricate and the most complex of all resources available to the manager. It is the same human element that is affected by even the slightest physical, psychological and sociological change in and around him.

The problem focused of this study therefore are those internal needs within individual or his environment that initiate and sustain his behavior and the determinants of affective job performance.

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This study intends to achieve the following objectives:-

  1. To establish the relationship between motivation and performance.
  2. To examine the effect of motivational techniques in improving workers performance.
  • To critically compare their relative impacts upon workers performance and efficiency.
  1. To make recommendation for further research.
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

There are a lot of benefits to be derived from this study if the appropriate techniques are employed to improve workers performance in a company, it will be of greater significance.

Employee can only be productive if the environment of work and the job itself it made interesting. But where workers are not given the motivation, productivity will be low to the determinant of the goals of the organization.

Management should give the employee that job satisfaction which he needs in order to encourage him. By so doing, devotism and inefficiency will be drastically reduced in the work place.

It hoped that by discovering and spot lighting those factors or elements which motivates the workers and make him aspire for high achievements and productivity and those that produce opposite effect, the company will be spared of trade dispute and most importantly will have her productivity and revenue goal fully realized.

Any organization will gain a lot if it knows what factors or elements that make a lot if it knows what factors or elements that make a worker develop attitude positively disposed towards the realization of the goal of the organization and how and with what to generate or develop such attitudes.

To ascertain the intricate human element and factors that are capable of strengthening and improving the work morale of the workforce with special reference of Pillar pole limited Nanka.

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To make recommendation on how to improve workers performance in an industry with particular reference to  our case study.

To examine certain technique employed in improving workers performance.

The outcome of this research work will serve as a reference material to future researchers in related areas.

  • RESEARCH QUESTION

The researcher seeks to answer the following:-

  1. What is the relationship between motivation and performance?
  2. What is the effect of motivational techniques in improving workers performance?
  • What are the relative impacts between performance and efficiency?
    • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study focuses on the motivational techniques that have the potential of stimulating workers to higher performance in the company.

The study however intends to cover Pillar Pole limited head office in the rural area of Nanka and selected branches within Anambra metropolis.

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  1. Performance: This is output of each worker based on his/her activities in the department.
  2. Productivity: This is the efficiency and the rate at which goods are produced. It is a concept that expresses relationship between output and input and other resources that produce output.
  3. Motivation: These are both intrinsic and extrinsic factors used to induce workers in an organization to action.
  4. Job security: Is the guaranteed statues of employment which the employee enjoys from arbitrary dismissal from his employers.
  5. Promotion: This is advancement of an employee to a better job in terms of greater skills and especially increased of the pay or salary.
  6. Pay/salary: Monetary reward received by a worker for his/her labour.
  7. Upgrading: A practice closely related to promotion. Here one is moved up to the next level without any appreciable increase or decrease in duties and responsibility.
  8. Fringe benefit: Those additional privileges enjoyed by a worker in addition to his wages and salaries to enable him stay comfortably on the job.

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