effects of broken homes on students academic performance in senior secondary school

Effects Of Broken Homes On Students Academic Performance In senior Secondary School In Gwagwalada AreaCouncil FCT

Many psychologist such as Fraser (1959) Newton (1970) and Davghas (1968) viewed that, home environment has a great influence on individual’s general development. This can be perfectly elucidated that environment influences every facts of an individual’s development. These facts can be social, academic and Continue reading effects of broken homes on students academic performance in senior secondary school

Impact of human resources management and organization performance in the public sector

The Impact Of Human Resources Management And Organization Performance In The Public Sector ( a case study of the Security And Exchange Commission

 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 Management for and managing human resources are emerging as an increasingly important determinant of organizational efficiency. As organizations evolve, the complexity of the environments they operate on requires much dependence on the people that make up the organizations. A very Continue reading Impact of human resources management and organization performance in the public sector

Incidence Of Ascaris Lumbricoides In Stool Among Children

The Incidence Of Ascaris Lumbricoides In Stool Among Children Between The Ages Of 5 And 10 Years In Obeleagu Umana Village In Enugu State.

The incidence of Ascaris lumbricoides in stools among children in Obeleagu Umana community between the ages of 5 and 10 years in Enugu state Viz: Umuonyi,  Umuanekeuba and Umudim was analysed by the direct smear and concentration methods of faecal examination. The aim of this work is to determine the incidence of Ascaris lubricoides in stool among children in Obeleagu Umana community between the ages of 5 and 10 years in Enugu State.  15 stool samples were collected and examined, and it was observed that the infestation was highest in stools collected from Umuonyi, followed by Umuanekeuba, and lastly by Umudim, Also the Ascaris infection was found to be more among children within the age limit of 5 – 7 years, whereas there was a reduction within the age limit of 8 – 10 years. The high Ascaris infection in Enugu metropolis among children was due to poor hygiene and poor sanitary conditions.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF THE STUDY

It is important to know the different distribution of helminintes (worms) infection based on the study of ecological, geographical and epidemiological condition.

Ascarasis is among the most common infections occurring through out the whole world. This infections has been associated with low standard of sanitation i.e poor sanitation (Cheesbrough, 1998). Ascaris lumbricoides (Large intestinal round worm) has a world wide distribution. It is particularly common in the tropics and subtropics in places where environmental sanitation is inadequate and untreaed human faeces are used as fertilizer (night – soil). In 1995, WHO (World Health Organization) estimated that there were 250 million persons infected with A. lumbricoides died from ascariasis. Again in 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there were 1,450 million persons infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and annually, 60,000  dying from ascariasis. Ascariasis was probably the first of all parasitism to the recognized by man. The parasite is large and very common. The Greek called it by the name it has today, that is “intestinal worm”, uneducated people in North America less than a century ago knew Ascaris and referred to them as pale worms, often seen in children faeces as “guardian angels”. A researcher has shown that the helminth has a world wide distribution throughout the topics and the alarming statistical fact that world infection rate was 107%, Ogumba, E.O. (2004) investigating children in Ibadan found the incidence of Ascaris, Hookworm, Trichuris to range from 40%  to 110% at the end of dry season. There are an estimated 4 million people infected in the USA, with the disease being highest among children and there are about 2 cases of  intestinal obstruction caused by ascariasis, 3% of the cases of obstruction die (Werner, D. et al, 1993). The larver of Ascaris  lumbricoides causes pneumonia, while in lungs symptomatology, a condition related to worm density, when present in small numbers in the intestine, they produce no apparent disturbance. But at higher density, obstruction and pari possible followed by gut perforation. The worms may migrate into unusual place like the bile, liver and stomach which may result to death of the host.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Ascaris has created problems in tropical African countries, children suffer great threat resulting from ascarisis. It causes problems such as diarrhea, anaemia, loss of weight, weakness, intestinal obstruction in children, vomiting, abdominal pain, impairment of protein digestion and absorption etc and some pathological effects that could lead to death.

1.3       AIM OF THE STUDY

The aim of this project is to determine the incidence of Ascaris lumbricoides in stools among children between the ages of 5 – 10 years in Obeleagu Umana Community in Enugu State.

  1. To determine the rate of occurance of ascariasis in children.
  2. To isolate the different species of Ascaris in children.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study of ascariasis intestinal helminthiasis has brought about the best strategies in preventing the wide spread of intestinal parasitic worm. Ascaris lumbricoides) in children especially in tropical/rural areas and also the control measures including the available drugs and role of sanitation.

1.5       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This project work on “incidence of Ascaris lumbricoides in stool among children between the ages of 5 and 10 years in Obeleagu Umuana village in Enugu State “was limited only to three (3) villages in Obeleagu Umana due to time and financial factors.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW

Ascaris  lumbricoides was probably first mentioned by Ransay (1934), after working in twelve localities in Northern Nigria and the incidence was 6.1%. According to chandler and Read (1954), Ascaris  lumbricoides is a large nematodes parasite that inihibits the human small intestine where it feeds on digested foods. It is one of the most common nematodes infections of mankinds, involving about two-thrid (2/3) of the world’s population. Ascaris lumbricoides does not attack the tissue but may occur in such large numbers that it blocks the gut. The adult worms commonly bites the mucous membrances with its lips suck blood and tissue juices. Ascaris is a thread-like animal almost devoid of external natures. The body is covered by a lubicle and there are no cilia. The gut has two opening, the mouth and anus which make its feeding, digestion and absorption more efficient. It can reach a length of 30cm for male while female worms range in size from 20-25cm in length and 2.6mm in diameter.

Ascaris lumbricoides belong to the class-

Nematoda, family – Ascarididal, phylum. Nemathelminthes (Adetokunbo and Herbert, 2003; brooks etal, 2007). The female worm is yrolific, laying up to 200,000 eggs a day. the typical egg has a yellowish – brown mamillated appearance.

2.1       FEATURES OF ASARIS LUMBRICOIDES

Ascaris  lumbricoides is a thread-like animal almost devoid of external yeatures. The body is covered by a lubicle and there are no cilia. The gut has two openings, the mouth and anus. Because of its double opening, feeding, digestion and absorption is more efficient.  Longitudinal muscles beneath the ectoderm enable movement of the body. The absence of circular muscles, however, permits only a back and forth thrashing motion. The excretory system consist of canals which open to out side by an excretory pore.

Fig 1: Gravid female of  A. Lumbricoides

  1. Oesophagus. 2. Intestine                     3. Ovary
  2. Vulva 5. Oviduct        6.  Uterus.

Figure 2: Mature male of A.  lumbricoides

  1. Oesophagus 2. Intestine       3. Testis           4. Seminal vesicle

(source: Davey, T.H. et al, 1973).

2.2       THE LIFE CYCLE OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES

The structural and life forms of helmininthes are generally complex and their life cycle changes from simple production of larvae (Juvenile stage) to complex alternative of generation involving as many as two to three direct hosts. There are many life cycle mode within the parasitic helminites. Some use direct life mode while others use indirect life mode/cycle. Direct life cycle involves only single host species used by many nematodes and cestoda. In indirect cycle, the parasite are those in which more than one host is used to complete the life cycle, example as in tremaatodes (flukes), utilizing snails as the intermediate host (Muoneke, 2003).

For the life cycle of Ascaris  lumbriciodes the unembryonated eggs are passed in faeces and take some days to devlop into the infection egg. The infective egg is swallowed in water or form contaminated food and then is hatched in the small intestine and penetrate it derive its food. Transmission of A. lumbriciodes is spread by faeces pollution of the environment. A person become infected by ingesting infective eggs in contaminated food or from hands that have become faecally contaminated. The mature worms live free in the intestine. Fertilized female worms produce many eggs per day. the eggs can remain viable in soil and dust for several years. These factors contribute to the wide spread and often heavy Ascaris infections which can be found especially among children of 3 – 8 years whose fingers become contaminated while playing on open ground. The worms can live 1-2 years in their host. The direct life cycle of A. lumbricoides is summarized belo

TRANSMISSION

1.     Infective eggs

ingested in food or from contaminated hands

Figure 3: TRANSMISSION AND LIFE CYCLE OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES

(SOURCE: CHEESBROUGHT, 1998)

2.3       PATHOGENESIS AND SOURCES INFECTION

pathogenesis describes the origin of damages caused by parasitc and how these damages originated through the activates of the parasite.

Ascaris Pathology: The parasite causes a lot harm and in conveniences due to its warrdering nature in the body. It caused intestinal abotraction, which is a serious complication of ascariasis.

Ascariasis interferes with protein digestion in children and combination with hookworm infection. Ascaris lumbricoides, they are carried to the lings and excape into the air spaces. As the larva break out the lungs capillaries, they cause hecmorrhage and the accompanying accumulation of pools of blood, dead tissue etc. Lead to congestion ascaris infection interferes with normal metabolism and nutrition (Cowper, 1960).

The primary source of worm infestation is the food or water contaminated with infected faces. When these parasites are passed out through the anus, Some of them find their way to food used by man  get it contaminated their way to food used by man and get it contaminated examples are ascaris egg on vegetable like: Cabbage and other  vegetables eaten raw or poorly washed. Another sources of ascaris infection is the soil, that it the soil bore infective stage,, here the eggs of this worm hatch in the soil and larvia find its way into the host by active boring into the skin i.e the worm is geohelminth.

2.4       CONTROL OPTION PARASITIC HELMINTHES

In the whole range of the diseases of man, it is in the field of intestinal parasites that obedience to the rule of cleanliness and the laws of sanitation proves most effective in preventing diseases. Prevention is the duty of everyone and prevention can only follow an understanding of the basic scientific principle or method underlying the cause and spread of disease in non and animal (Harod and Hubert, 1997).

Effort have been made for the establishment of public health department and general health service, installation of good toilets, administration which serve to influence individual and community attitudes favorable on matter of sanitations, nutrition and other aspects of disease prevention.  Based on these, the WHO has mapped a number of control options. They are subdivided into two (2) categories:

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL: Which includes improved sanitation, unifected water and food supply, ensuring that foods are free of parasite eggs and larval (Lucas and Gilles, 2003).
  2. mass Treatment: This involves the use of mass chemotherapeutic agents (drugs) to treat  the whole family with suitable worm expeller periodically. The mass treatment of children should be done using a single dose of one of the broad – spectrum antihelminthics. Some of the suggested drugs for the treatment of ascariasis include:
  3. Albendszole
  4. Mebendazole

iii.        Pyrantel

Stool samples were collected form children and  three different village in obeleagu umana. The villages were Umuoyi, Umuanekeuba and Umudim.

The Incidence Of Ascaris Lumbricoides In Stool Among Children Between The Ages Of 5 And 10 Years In Obeleagu Umana Village In Enugu State.

Development Of Public Library In Nigeria

Development Of Public Library In Nigeria  

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The history of libraries began with the first effort to organize collections of documents. Topics of interest include accessibility of the collection, acquisition of materials, management and finding tools, the book trade the influence of the physical properties of the different writing materials, language distribution, role in education, rates of literacy, budgets, staffing, libraries for specially targeted audiences, architectural merit, patterns of usage and the role of libraries in a nations cultural heritage and the role of government, church or private sponsorship. Since the 1960s issues of computerization and digitalization come to the fore. Continue reading Development Of Public Library In Nigeria

Social Media Use In Political Campaign In Anambra State

Social Media Use In Political Campaign In Anambra State (A Study Of 2015 Senatorial Election In

Aguata L.G.A)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

The emergence of the internet as the new mass medium of the 21st century now changes the mass media substantially. Information can be distributed at high speed, low cost and broad scope as a result; there is egalitarian access to the production and the consumption of news (Prat and Stromberg, 2011). Continue reading Social Media Use In Political Campaign In Anambra State

Challenges Of The Building Project Delivery Process

Challenges Of The Building Project Delivery Process: Perceptions Of Construction Professional In Anambra

State, Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
    • Background of the Study

Smith (1999) observed that project delivery processes are critical to achieving project success as they entail an essential aspect of an organization’s strategic planning and management system that seek to minimize risks and uncertainties. Continue reading Challenges Of The Building Project Delivery Process

Entrepreneurship Skills And Economic Development Of Anambra State

Entrepreneurship Skills And Economic Development Of Anambra State (A Study Of Nnewi North Lga) 2010-2015

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Global dynamics have dramatically changed in the last few decades. Many countries in South East Asia and Latin America have become dominant in the exports of manufactured goods and are increasingly becoming key players in global economic environment. Unfortunately there exists a universal pessimism about Africa’s economic growth prospect. Botswana and South Africa remain exceptions simply because of their well calculated policies which direct revenue from diamond exports towards developing infrastructure and human capital. Nigeria is the Africa’s most populous country and its fourth largest economy. Ironically, even with the massive oil revenue accrued over the years, the country is categorized among the poorest in the world.

The problems of the Nigerian economy is structured in nature. The vast population of the country is made up small scale farmers and petty traders. Over time, the performance of the industrial sectors which is expected to create substantial job opportunities and serves as a link to primary sector has not been impressive. Due to low domestic productive capacity living conditions deteriorate. Poverty and unemployment increased while human capital and participation in international trade remain very low. This calls for the need to rethink the nations development strategy by looking inward to create new businesses and develop local talents.

Since the strength of an economy is measured by its physical and human resource endowment and how productively these resources are developed to produces goods and services, task of promoting entrepreneurship at all levels becomes paramount. This is especially so in a country where the unemployed people tend to rely on government and paid jobs rather than on their initiatives.

Today, large organizations have also recognized the need to promote entrepreneurship mind-set in order to explore new opportunities and to avoid complacency. This trend is encouraged by feet that corporate leader who would approach problems creatively and entrepreneurial and also strives on the management of change.

The purpose of this paper is to examine critical factors affecting the survival and growth of new business ventures in Nigeria using six states as reference points. Farmers and small business owners were asked about the activities of various government and institutional financing organs at Bungudu, Gwarzo, Isa, Nsukka, Isiakpo, Ekwisigo areas of Zamfara, Kano, Sokoto, Enugu, Rivers and Anambra States respectively. The goal is to provide a flat form for harmonized various enterprise policies and programmes which would hopefully make entrepreneurship development in the country more focused and result oriented. It is also the objective of this paper to challenges existing business as usual approach to business by individuals and organizational leadership. Perhaps this would enable them stretch their human creative faculties t innovate and grow new business ventures essential for achieving sustainable economic development. Beside utilizing contemporary literature, the paper draws insights South Asia experiences.

Anambra State us a state in South Eastern Nigeria. Its name is an anglicized capital and the seat of government is Awka, Onitsha and Nnewi are the biggest commercial and industrial cities, respectively.

The state’s theme is “Light of the Nation”. Boundaries are formed by Delta state to the west, Imo State and Rivers State of the South, Enugu State to the east and Kogi State to the North. The origin of the name is derived from the Anambra River (Omambala) which is a tributary of the famous River Niger.

The indigenous ethnic group in Anambra State are the Igbo (98% of population) and a small population of Igala (2% of the population) who live mainly in the North Western part of the state (3).

Anambnra is the eighth most populated state in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State. The stretch of more than 45km between Oba and Amorke contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated villages and small towns giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500 – 2,000 persons per square kilometer.

  • Statement of the problem

International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that 300million young people are unemployed or underemployed and 80% of those youth live in developing or transition economics. Although the ILO estimates that 20% of the young unemployed have the potential to become entrepreneurs, less than 5% actually do (Huang, et al; 2010). Programs, such as the ILO’s Youth Business International Program and you win in Nigeria target youth. There seems some levels of agreement that entrepreneurial attribute is four (personality, skills, motivation and attitude) dimensional (Lumpkin and Edrogo, 2004). However, there seem no evidence as to the order of importance and integration of the above in the entrepreneurship development process for it to lead sustainable economic transformation and developments. This may have affected success levels of entrepreneurship development programmes especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. This paper is motivated by the need to empirically as critical success factors of entrepreneurship development.

For decades, one of the principle state and local economic development tools has been tax incentives. Every state offers incentives in one form or another to retain business and attract businesses from other states. According to one survey, 95 percent of U.S municipalities also use such incentives.

Some policy markers have expressed a desire to end this practice but fell stuck in an arms race. They pear they cannot unilaterally forgo incentives because others use them, so they create ever-increasing incentive packages in an effort to compete. Although some incentives may be economically justified in terms of jobs and productivity in the midst of an arms race it’s difficult to tell what is and is not effective in creating jobs.

One thing that is known is that this practice costs taxpayers billions of dollars each year. Estimates put the annual cost near 870 billion. Moreover, incentives targeting existing companies miss the economy’s real engine of job erection new and young businesses, which create nearly all net jobs in the united states, a fact that also holds true at this state and city levels.

Policymaker have heard those arguments before, but need ideas, not criticism. The Kamffman foundation hosted a conference of state legislations, mayors, researchers, and leading thinkers to discuss two themes related to incentives.

Firstly, how can incentive programs be improved to better promote economic growth? Secondly: what alternative strategies exist for promoting economic development through entrepreneurship?

  • Research Questions

In the course of this research, the following questions were generated for analysis.

  1. To what extent does entrepreneurship contribute to economic development of Anambra State?
  2. To what extent does entrepreneurship impact on employment creation in Anambra State?
  3. To what extent does entrepreneurship contribute to increased standard of living?
    • Purpose of the study

The general objective is to develop an entrepreneurship development model that ensures a progressive learning experience, through which beneficiaries are motivated to take socially and environmentally responsive entrepreneurial actions aimed at addressing economic problems of employment and income inequalities in their societies. Hence, the specific objectives include:-

  • To ascertain the role of entrepreneurship in economic development of Anambra State.
  • To find out the role of entrepreneurship in creation of employment.
  • To find out the role of entrepreneurship towards increased standard of living in Anambra State.
    • Significance of the study

Against this backdrop of this G.D.P observed in the Anambra State and the consequences on development prospects. The major significances of this work:

  • It is expected that the study will serve as literature review to other students.
  • Most importantly, it is envisaged that it should be useful to public policy analysts, particularly policy makers etc.
  • It will be of immense help to future researchers on the role of entrepreneurship in socio-economic development of the state.
    • Scope of the study

This research work covers a comprehensive analysis of the role of entrepreneurship in economic development of Anambra state. The research will also provide a brief history of origin of entrepreneurship in Nigeria. As the researcher limits its work to Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State.

  • Limitation of the study

This work is by no means exhaustive but useful attempts to penetrate the core of the issue have been made. The researcher encountered many difficulties in the process of collecting data for his research. These problems invariably formed the basis for limitation of the study.

Firstly: time constraint affected a comprehension review of related literature on the subject after the study. Gathering of materials textbooks, journals etc for the review of literature were time consuming. The researcher being a student has other courses to cover and this had to apportion the time to meet the damage of other courses.

Secondly; the proximity of related literature materials also posed a problem. The researcher was impeded by necessary textbooks, magazine and journals for offered their downside to the study, human beings have never been easy to deal with especially when human behaviours are unpredictable. Some data and questionnaires were bluntly refused by the respondents. Finally, the research was based on the title money they could save. All these limitations, limited the validity of the finding and condition, the research would have been more retained without these constraints.

  • Definition of terms

ENTREPRENEURSHIP: This has been defined as the willingness and ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities, establish and run an enterprise successfully.

ECONOMIC: Economic is a science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.

DEVELOPMENT: Development is a process of societal advancement, where improvement in the well being of people are generated through strong partnership between all sectors, corporate bodies and other groups in the society.

  • Organization of the study

The study was organized into five chapters, one introduced the study by giving the background information on the research problem, objectives, the scope and limitation of the study. Chapter two dealt with the review of relevant literature and the theoretical framework of farmers cooperative society. Chapter three discussed the research methodology adopted for the study and relevant justifications. Chapter four presented the finding on the farmers cooperative society and rural economic development. Chapter five also presented the conclusions drawn from the research finding and recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.0           LITERATURE REVIEW

                Although there is a vast literature on economic development, there is still no clarity as to its real meaning. This notwithstanding, it is widely agreed that development must be seeing as the general improvement in living conditions of people. It is not merely about the provision of basic necessities such as food, clothing and shelter, but also health, improvement of human capital and redistribution of wealth.

Nayyer, (2003) argues that conventional economic growth theory tends to emphasize increases in per capital income as a measure for development ignoring other essential indicators of development such as reduction in poverty, inequality and employment as well as improvement in quality of life.

Easterly, (1999) and Bartoli, (2000) argue that growth must always be associated with social and institutional progress. It must assume a human dimension which encompasses the enhancement of material well being, health, education and dignity of life. Nabunde, (2002) and Charper (2003) also claims that the most effective means of improving economics performance in poor countries is through industrialization and this cannot be possible without significant rise in the level of literacy and skills, investments and saving rate which would stimulate entrepreneurship and production. Hence, fostering growth require supporting investments and accumulation of human capital.

Although the world has recorded unprecedented economic progress in the last 50years especially in terms of growth in world’s output, capital accumulation and technological advancement, the progress achieved has been uneven between and within industrialized and non-industrialized nations. It is on this basis the advocates of this endogenous growth theory insist that government policy is fundamental in the process of influencing factors determining the long term rate of growth. Soro’s, (2000) observes that government has a unique role in fastering development since the conventional market mechanism are inadequate to cater for the needs and aspirations of the late comers that are essentially poor countries. Development crisis which is the generalized incapacity of an economy to generate the necessary environmental conditions for sustained improvement in the standard of living would persist unless effective intervention mechanisms are put in place (Stein, 2003). In this respect, we could argue that it is the responsibility of the governments to provide an integrated national policy that would faster this development of entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Achieving this task is essential for increased productivity, job creation, and improvement in living condition.

2.1           Entrepreneurship Development

                In today’s world where technological change, liberalization, outsourcing, and restructuring rule, the subject of entrepreneurship has gained greater interest. The discussions centered on what actually contribute entrepreneurship and how far it extends. The term entrepreneurship is derived from the French word entreprendre to undertake. This suggests that entrepreneurship is the process of undertaking activities concerned with identifying and exploiting business opportunities while assuming it’s associated risks. Entrepreneurship is about a kind of behavior that includes initiative taking, reorganizing economic activities and the acceptance of it’s risks (Shapero, 1975) it is important to note that entrepreneurial activities are universal and ca therefore be promoted even in societies that manifest low entrepreneurship activities.

Small enterprises in particular are central in achieving sustainable growth. They constitute about 90% of the business population in North America and they accounted for the most new jobs in the country (Kuratko and Hodyelts, 1998). Entrepreneurship involves taking chances, but new businesses do not emerge by accident (Eyelhoff, 2005). They are usually founded as a result of motivated entrepreneurship gaining access to resources and finding niches in opportunity structures. Hence, entrepreneurship could be seen as the process of identifying and exploiting unique business opportunities that stretch the creative capacities of both private and public organizations. Sue and Dan, (2000) argues that entrepreneurship is influenced by genetic power, family background and economic environment. Since economic environment could support or suppress entrepreneurship, governments world over undertake to develop means economic policies that focus mainly on providing access to resources and support services to individuals and organizations that display flair for expending their business horizons. Poverty among people is usually caused by inadequate income due to shrinking job opportunities as well as high businesses tend to add jobs faster than big companies because they are highly adaptable, innovative and responsive to new business and market challenges (Frese and Rarch, 2005). Thus, supporting entrepreneurs becomes a critical policy issue especially since those new businesses that do survive tend to expand employment and growth of the nations economy. The important question to be asked is why too few young businesses grow in meaningful ways? Bruno et al (1987) maintain that there are three categories of reason for high business failures; product/market problems, financial, difficulties and managerial problems.

This suggests that the responsibility for creating and growing new businesses does not rest entirely on government. Individuals and organizations are required to analyze key success factors in business environment and take personal responsibility for survival and growth of their own ventures. On its part, government is expected to provide adequate infrastructure and friendly policy guidelines.

2.1.2 Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Economic Development

The association of entrepreneurship and economic development of nations has long been recognized by economists of the past such as Jean Baptiste (1803) and Joseph Schumpter (1934): Small firms tend to employ more labour per unit of capital and require less per capital unit of output than do large one (Kuratko and Hodgetts, 1998). Thus, the creation of small businesses and growing the existing one’s is considered to be the fastest way to achieve economic growth. conventionally, ideas about how businesses ideas emerge in society have assumed that the process starts and ends with the individuals character traits (Kilby, 1988). This suggests that an entrepreneurship character is in-born. However, many argues that entrepreneurship, behavior could be stimulated through policy intervention (Chelland and Klinter, 1969). This is the reason why entrepreneurship in increasingly promoted in less developed countries.

There is probably no regime in Nigeria which at one time or another has to emphasized the development of small enterprises. For examples, the need for encouraging increased productivity and self-employment has been recognized since 1970s with formulation of the small scale enterprises promotion policy. Until now, government pronouncement on promoting small enterprises are not always translated into serious policy statements backed by effective implementation mechanisms. In fact, most of the programmes, introduced to assist small enterprises only reached a small portion of the total of small business population. In actual sense, policy makers were more concerned with the establishment of few large enterprises than developing small ones. This was what partly informed the import substitution industry (ISI) strategy of the late 1970s where huge sum of money was spent on unsustainable mammoth companies. For example, a number of automobile assembly, plants were established in various part of the country, many such as Fiat in Kano and Stoyre in Bauchi States have collapsed. Again, government is unable to improve infrastructure, security and general state of the economy which all have devastating effect on small business.

Of course, the inability of business owners to change ineffective traditional management practices and adopt innovative reforms also contribute significantly to their misfortune.

2.1.3   Problems of Small Enterprises in Nigeria            

                There are a number of problems limiting the growth of small and medium size businesses in Nigeria. Our survey reveals that most of the problems exist because of poor policy guidelines while others are attributed to the lack of imagination and expertise by the existing and potential entrepreneurs. Specifically, the problems border the neglect of new business opportunities poor infrastructure and insecurity, lack of government support, neglect difficulties faced by youth, problem of

Entrepreneurship Skills And Economic Development Of Anambra State

Library User Education In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria

Library User Education In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria: A Case Study of The Federal College Of Education (Technical) Umunze

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study:

One of the fundamental laws of the library is that the resources (books and non-book) must be well consulted. The librarian has to acquire and provide access to information stocked in the library. The user is very important in the practice of librarianship, this is the library process revolves around the users. Continue reading Library User Education In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria

Population Census And National Development In Nigeria

Population Census And National Development In Nigeria: A Study Of The 2006 Population Census In Anambra State.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Census in Nigeria is nothing to write home about, from colonial era to 2006 various governments and agencies have tried their best to prefer solution to the problems of census on Nigeria without success factors responsible range  from collection of data, illiteracy and poor accessibility to remote area, inadequate professional expertise etc. It has failed due tot out environment that is controlled by corruption. Since census figure is used as a basis for parliamentary Continue reading Population Census And National Development In Nigeria

The Poverty Eradication Programme In Nigeria

The Poverty Eradication Programme In Nigeria (An Assessment Of Napep 2005-2015)   

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

The Poverty Eradication Programme in Nigeria (An Assessment of the NAPEP 2005-2015) has been a subject of protected debate amongst different scholars.

In respect of the generated debates different scholars and opinion leaders have tried to analyse and document facts to this effect.  Continue reading The Poverty Eradication Programme In Nigeria