Identity Crisis In African Philosophy: A Philosophical Study Of Nkrumah’s Consciencism

Identity Crisis In African Philosophy: A Philosophical Study Of Nkrumah’s Consciencism

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1.  Background to the Study

Philosophy generally reflects the socio-political situation of its time and place. Socio-political situations generally raise many questions in the minds of people and thus give rise to reflection and philosophizing. Hence, there is always a close connection between the socio-political situation of a place at a given time and the philosophy of that place at that particular period. Contemporary African philosophy is predominantly a political philosophy and this reflects the socio-political situation from which it arose. The socio-political situation of contemporary Africa raised questions in the minds of African thinkers and prompted them to focus their thoughts on political issues.

Since the middle of 20th century, African scholars have been battling with rediscovery of African identity after the devastating effect of European slavery and colonization. Most of the scholars argue that European slavery and colonialism devastated African psyche, rubbished her culture and values, and left her empty of any coherent world view of reality. The travails and backwardness of Africa in social, economic, and political development have been blamed on European colonialism and neo-colonialism. Fifty-five years after most African nations have become politically independent; many African scholars still blame the Western world for the backwardness of the continent. The situation is worrisome when we consider that other continents that were colonized like Africa are picking their pieces and advancing their development.

The question that agitates the mind here is; why is it that Africa cannot rise above her experience of European invasion and actualize herself? Man is always confronted with challenges and what distinguishes a people is how they are able to manage and overcome their challenges. It is the opinion of this essay that part of the problems of African underdevelopment is the Africa psychological complacency necessitated by abundant resources and environmental friendliness that sustains life at minimal stress. The search for African identity should not just focus on the past culture and achievements of the continent but also on the contemporary prowess of the continent that can propel her to overcome this psychological complacency and work towards greater heights in achievements that will attract the attention of the world. It is of age that Africans should stop lamenting the evils of European invasion and continual manipulation of the continent and confront the challenges the contemporary world order has in stock for her. The continent cannot develop on the terms of sympathy from other continents but on the strength of authentic and realistic confrontation of her challenges with the intention of overcoming them by herself and defining her existence in the world affairs.

During the 19th century, the scramble for territories by European powers took a new turn as they began to make significant advances to tropical Africa. By 1913, European powers had divided the African continent into miserable groups that showed little or no regard for ethnic and linguistic boundaries. This opened the African version of colonialism. The human and natural resources of Africa were exploited, independent African communities lost their political liberty, and Africa suffered a crisis of self-confidence, creating a lasting sense of inferiority and subjugation that builds a barrier to growth and innovation. In the face of these exploitative and ideological devaluation of the black race, emerged an interesting package to the development of African political ideology.

Many Africans began the search for an ideological project of self-affirmation and assertive cultural nationalism. Among these were Nnamdi Azikiwe, the pilot of Nigerian independence, Leopold Senghor, appraised as an apostle of negritude, Kwame Nkrumah, a radical nationalist and a proponent of Pan-Africanism, Obafemi Awolowo, a socialist oriented nationalist, Julius Nyerere, the father of Ujamaa Socialism, Edward Wilmot Blyden and his African Personality, Kenneth Kaunda and his African Humanism, Frantz Fanon and his Violent resistance, Tom Mboya and his African socialism and the challenge to nationhood. The focus of this thesis is to highlight and analyze Kwame Nkrumah’s political ideology in his work Consciencism, how it addresses the problems of African independence and the global solution to Africa’s problems through a unified effort in Pan-Africanism using his work titled Consciencism: Philosophy and Ideology for Decolonization, published in 1964 and re-published in 1979.

  1. 1.2      Statement of the Problem

The Euro-colonial attack on the African continent was the main event that separated the African from his traditional past. Not only did colonialism put a stop to gradual African cultural growth, there was also the tendency of the colonial agents to wipe out the past, especially with regards to language, and religion on economic and political grounds. In some cases, the colonial agents transferred what was too valuable to be destroyed to the safety of the colonizing lands. Thus, the African, in addition to losing his political independence, also lost his myths, folktales, legends, language, culture and religion to foreign ones.

Hence, by the beginning of the 20th century A.D, the face of Africa had undergone a noticeable change. The change was brought about by years of trans-Atlantic slave trade, the transportation of human cargo to the Americas and to Europe and series of wars of colonial subjugation, which destroyed the African will and effective cultural presence and enthroned new political and religious creeds that will gradually try to replace the old. The African has in effect become divided in an unusual and negative way. She has become one who has to pay a double allegiance to at least two masters at the same time. She cannot eradicate her African past, and she cannot just view the colonial presence without concern. This brought about a confused identity among the Africans both within and in diaspora.

What is the relationship between reality and colonialism? What are the springs of colonialism? Is it a good or is it a necessary evil? Is colonialism a universal human problem? How must philosophy come to terms with the African traditional heritage and the colonial heritage? What new personality ought to emerge as a product of the various cultural heritage of the African?  This shows that with the ailment of the mind, the body is affected. When the inner self is disillusioned then the outer self is nothing but disorder and confusion. And this is the case with Africa. Since her contact with the Europeans, Africa has been psychologically traumatized in every way. And the effect has manifested physically and also mentally. This is a clear indication of what Nkrumah’s Consciencism portrays. It is in attacking this question that one will notice that the identity crisis has been a deep rooted syndrome on the African mind. Nkrumah’s Consciencism is a theory about transforming independent Africa. The main problem about this transformation of independent African countries is how to make Africa’s basic or traditional social heritage to prevail notwithstanding the various cultural currents that have been introduced into Africa from foreign countries. Hence, the thrust of Consciencism is socio-political. The question of which we are concerned in this essay is this: How can African societies use their identity to develop? Can it construct progress without a vision of its past, or can it link its future development with its historical tradition? Such a question requires the adoption of certain ideologies that are grounded on the culture of the people.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

It has been an undertaking of philosophy to give meaning to human existence. Since it is philosophical mission to give meaning to human existence, it is my estimation that it is appropriate to look into the issue of crisis of identity and ideology in Nkrumah’s Consciencism. It is appropriate to note that the acknowledgment of African identity is necessary because of its vast contact and involvement with Europe. However, it is my view to look at why there is crisis of identity in African philosophy and culture analyzing Nkrumah’s Consciencism. Kwame Nkrumah’s mission in the world was to dismantle colonialism in Africa and restore the lost  African identity. His vision was the restoration of the dignity that was lost as a result of slavery and colonialism to enable the African to function freely in the coming unified world society as an equal player and partner. Kwame Nkrumah was keenly aware that the problem of humanity would not be fully addressed if the problem of Africa was not addressed, and he made it his mission to do that. In this crusade, Kwame Nkrumah was not alone, for others also recognized the urgent need to address the problem of Africa. However, it is my view to look at why there is crisis of identity in African philosophy analyzing Nkrumah’s Consciencism, and to prove that African of today is and should be a hybrid and thus does not advocate for a return to a pristine existence.

1.4 Scope of the Study

It is pertinent to note that the crunch of identity is common basic issue in contemporary African society. It ranges from the disappearance of authentic African cultural heritage, to the rational disparagement of Africa, then to the physical dehumanization of Africa and finally to the psychologically devastated Africa. It is this psychologically distressed Africa that is our concern in this thesis. This work exposes the causes of this crisis, the effect and its victim as the contemporary African society. Since our concern in this thesis is the analysis of Nkrumah’s ideology and the crisis of identity in Africa, it is my view to examine Nkrumah’s Consciencism to showcase the inherent crisis in his theory. Again to prove what necessitated his work and the influence of Marxism on him. With this in mind, our thesis should base on exposing Nkrumah’s philosophy of Consciencism and his effort to lay a foundation for decolonization of Africa. Then to give a clue of what one is to consider in identifying the African personality. The range of this work shall be library research and internet resources.

1.5 Significance of the Study

When one places Nkrumah’s Consciencism in the context of unforeseen circumstances in present-day African society, one easily identifies the root cause of identity crisis in Africa. And this is why Nkrumah maintains that it is only through revolution that Africa can be totally free to mind its own destiny and regain its lost culture and life. Thus, Kwame Nkrumah’s Consciencism: Philosophy and Ideology for Decolonization, was geared towards decolonization of Africa in order that there will be a harmony that will aid Africans and its influences from abroad. This adds confidently to our field of study because, it will help to explore, expose, analyze, criticize, and redefine the ideologies and the identity crisis intrinsic in Nkrumah’s work and accepts its valuable needs for the mastery of her own identity. What Africa needs is a good knowledge of taking cognizance of its past and the present in order to foresee how the future will be like? This shows why African philosophers should be able to provide the better steps towards achieving this goal. This is because it will help to provide the historically depreciated; politically instability, economically bastardized, culturally alienated, and psychologically traumatized Africa, a sense of dignity in achieving its own uniqueness and personality.

The problem of identity crisis in Africa is most significant in modern African philosophy because African philosophers have occupied themselves with the question of crisis of identity in Africa. And thus, they are concerned about the best possible ways to salvage the African personality in details. Therefore, this research is so important because Nkrumah’s Consciencism was geared towards rescuing the disparaged image of the African in order for them to have total liberation of themselves by realizing their root and the implications of the confused personality that have over taken the African continent.

Therefore, this work is significant because it enables us to know the right edge of mind to follow in order for us to be able to identify our personality proper.It is only then can Africa be said to be free and free indeed. African communalism and socialism contain within their framework the positive principles that will contribute to the free growth of the individuals in the contemporary African society, so there is need to evolve a modern African society that can afford a better opportunity for the proper realization of the dignity and self-identity of the individual as well as the communal and social integrity and development of the contemporary African society.

1.6 Methodology

The methodology to be employed in this thesis is analysis method, using Nkrumah’s Consciencism to showcase this very fact. This thesis is divided into Five Chapters.

Chapter One focuses on the general introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, methodology and then the definition of terms.

Chapter Two delves into examining some literatures that talked about African personality. And also to consider some philosophers’ notion that talked about Nkrumah’s Consciencism.

Chapter Three concerns itself more on the possible causes of the crisis of identity in Africa and then the effect of the crisis in Africa in recent times. It also seeks to examine African philosophy in its quest for identity.

Then, Chapter Four centres on the analysis of Nkrumah’s Consciencism and his struggle for African Liberation.Here, we centre on the possible reasons for his writing Consciencism and the influence and role Marxism played on Nkrumah and in independence of African nation states respectively. It also incorporates exposition of the crisis implicit in his Consciencism, and his inability to wriggle himself out of the crisis.

Lastly, Chapter Five will be on the evaluation of the whole work and then conclusion.

In sum, I hope a rundown of the thesis will certainly expose the crisis we have in recognizing our identity; and be able to formulate a better identity that will help revitalise Africa in their design for contemporary African philosophy.

1.7 Definition of Terms

For our present enterprise to be intelligible and meaningful there is need for proper understanding of some major terms involved. Such words shall be briefly defined according to the context of which they shall be used in this thesis. They include: African, communalism, socialism, Marxism, Egalitarianism, identity crisis and colonialism.

Communalism

The word communalism was derived from the Latin word communis which means common. Communalism could be used interchangeably with communitarianism in this work. Communalism is the socio-political theory that upholds the priority of the community over the individual.1Communalistic principle underlies African philosophical endeavors as well as African people’s practical orientations to social, moral and political values generally. One could say that in traditional African society, man never does anything, receives anything, or suffers anything alone. It is a popular belief held in a nearly “un-animistic” way, that is, that Africans do not think of themselves as “discrete individuals”, but rather understand themselves as part of a “community”. This is sometimes referred to as African communalism.2 African communalism refers to the mode of life of the traditional Africans which entails collective and co-operative life.

Egalitarianism

It is a philosophical thought system that emphasizes equality and equal treatment across gender, religion, economic status and political beliefs. It holds the belief that everyone is equal and should have the same rights and opportunities. One of the major tenets of egalitarianism is that all people are fundamentally equal. Egalitarianism can be examined from a social perspective that looks at ways to reduce economic inequalities or from a political perspective that looks at ways to ensure the equal treatment and rights of diverse groups of people. Egalitarianism may focus on income inequality and distribution and, as a philosophy, has influenced the development of various economic and political systems. Karl Marx looked to egalitarianism as a starting point in the creation of his Marxist philosophy, and John Locke considered egalitarianism when he proposed that individuals had natural rights. Kwame Nkrumah also modified this to suite his ideology.3

Identity Crisis

Identity can be defined as a fairly stable sense of who you are and what people know you to be. It goes beyond sex or gender. It has to do with the following questions; who am I? If I am unique in the world, what establishes my uniqueness? Am I a man or a woman? What is the purpose of my being in the world? and others too numerous to mention. The ability to answer the above questions means that one to a certain extent has known oneself. According to psychologists, there are two things that help us to understand one’s identity; crisis and commitment. Crisis is a state of being confused about one’s life while commitment has to do with making a stable choice in life. According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, identity is the characteristics, feelings or beliefs that distinguish people from others, a sense of national, cultural, personal, group identities, to show or prove who or what somebody/something is.4 It is designating who or what somebody is. Identity in this thesis signifies this but it is synonymous with Africans recognizing not only the things that identify them as Africans alone but also taking cognizance of her experience in history. This is what portrays the true identity of the African. While crisis in this thesis implies the psychological trauma that is troubling the African mind in the identification of herself. Thus, crisis here is caused by the existence of African tradition with other cultures of the world. There is therefore the dilemma of following one and leaving the other. The search for identity in Africa presupposes that the African has identity crisis.

Colonialism

According to Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, colonialism is defined as the practice of domination, which involves the subjugation of one people to another.5 It is the act of ruling nations not with their consent as colonies. This is usually done for the economic benefit of the colonialist. Colonialism is synonymous with exploitation. This is because colonialism is never geared towards making the colonized better but for the benefit of the colonizer. In this work, we are strictly dealing with the European colonization of Africans. The imposition of foreign culture on the African continent that brought about Africans being a single continent with confused identity.

Consciencism

Consciencism is a philosophy based on a set of philosophical statements penned by Kwame Nkrumah (1909–1972). According to Nkrumah, Africans everywhere share historical bonds, cultural bonds, and common aspirations for unity, but colonialism and enslavement interrupted the expression of this shared heritage and generated a cultural confusion rectifiable only by the ethical imposition of conscience. Nkrumah therefore presented Consciencism as a way of beginning to resolve what he saw as the crisis of the African conscience. The statements that detail the philosophy were intended as a theoretical basis for an ideology that synthesizes the African experience. The elements of this synthesis are; (1) traditional African society, which is understood as the base of the African experience and is used to filter other experiences through; (2) Islam’s effect on the worldwide African community; and (3) the Euro-Christian impact on that community.  Consciencism is the philosophy and ideology of Kwame Nkrumah and of the party he founded Convention Peoples’ Party (CPP).  It is the philosophy and ideology of decolonization with particular reference to the African Revolution. It can be seen as the Pan African philosophy heritage.

John Stuart Mill’s Concept Of Liberty And Women’s Participation In Nigerian Politics

John Stuart Mill’s Concept Of Liberty And Women’s Participation In Nigerian Politics: A Philosophical Appraisal

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

Women form a large proportion of Nigeria’s population, constituting about 78 million out of 170 million Nigerians. But unfortunately, this numerical strength does not reflect in the level of women’s involvement in governance, the United Nation’s global development indicator reveals that women in Nigeria and elsewhere in the world trail behind men socially, economically and politically.In Nigeria today, a close look at the governance structures shows that women’s involvement is marginal although the population of men and women in the country is relatively slow. In her article, “The Emergence of Women Political Leaders”, Orji posits that:

Progress in the area of political participation of women remain slow. In almost all countries, women have the right to vote on paper, to be eligible for elections or appointment to public office, and to exercise public functions on equal terms with men at local, national and international levels.1

It is on record that Nigerian women are virtually invisible and inactive in the country’s political and decision making structures. Men were said to have dominated strategic decision making positions in Nigeria since her independence. In the First Republic (1960-1966), there were only two women members in the 48 members of Federal House of Senate. During the Second Republic (1979-1983), there was only one female senator and a female member of the House of Representatives out of 57 and the house respectively. Between 1999–2003, there were three female senators out of 109 and 12 female members of the House of Representatives out of 360 members.2 The foregoing analysis depicts women’s low participation in Nigerian Politics. Furthermore, from 2011–2015, there were 9 female senators, compared to 4 in 2003. Also, there were 26 female members in the House of Representatives. The result of the just concluded 2015 general elections in Nigeria has not shown improved women representation in elective positions in the country. However, out of the 14 candidates that contested for the seat of the presidency, the only woman among the contenders came out the 12th position, just as men have always dominated the national assembly.

Meanwhile, the importance of women in the political process, economic development, and the social life of any nation need not to be emphasized. It is widely acknowledged that women constitute key national resources, whose ideas, creative solutions and concerns for cohesiveness of the social fabric can help improve the quality of life of individuals and society at larger.

Recent achievements and participation of Nigerian women in politics today shows that if given full support and encouragement to the Nigerian women, they will do better than their male counterpart. Moreover, Nigerian state has not taken the issue of low participation of women in politics seriously despite some progress made by some great Nigerian women and their contributions to social, political and economic well being of the country.

On this note, this work shall examine critically the constraints and opportunities for the emergence of women political leaders in Nigeria. J. S. Mill’s concept of liberty stands as a focal point in this study in attempt to ameliorate the plight of the women and elucidates the predicament of womanhood in a male dominated socio-economic and political environment.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Every research or investigation must be motivated by a desire to address (or at least attempt to solve) a problem or set of problems. This work is an attempt to address the issue of gender inequality and women empowerment in Nigerian politics. It is a demand for equal access to leadership positions. Since Nigeria had independent we have never had female president or elected female governor? Why do we have few female genders in Nigerian politics? Why have women remained in a state of political paralysis? Are women all that powerless? Do women educations really belong to the kitchen? Don’t women have political behaviours? Is women age affecting their political aspirations? What are the roots and causes of this situation? Slaves had already been freed from bondage by this time, why not women too? Why still using premodern law of forces instead of modern law of reason? The rights of millions of Nigerian women are undermined by men; that is why our society remains male-oriented and male-dominated. Women are constrained by the customs and traditions made by men and constantly frustrate the rights of women and take control of their destiny. It is inhuman for man to enslave another.

The mention of the word ‘liberty’ one may shout liberty again? What will women do with liberty? How far have they gone with the one given to them? Are they still thirsty of equality? Don’t women know that they belong to other room? Can women empowerment be the solution to the problem of Nigerian leadership? Can equality between men and women be possible or justifiable? These, as it were, seem to be born out of Sophocles observation that “miracles in the world are many but there is no greater miracle than man”.

This problem of gender equality has a solution since it is man-made and men are in the best position to address this problem. Protagoras the most famous and perhaps the first sophist proffer solution to this gender problem by saying that “man is the measure of all things, of the things that they are, they are and of the things that they are not, they are not”.3 What these means here is that the ethical values and judgments: laws and customs are simply products of human agreement. However, since men decides for themselves what exists as laws and customs and what should not exist as laws and customs in the society, they should also re-dress this unjust acts against women. If not, Nigeria dreams will remain a mere dream until women are emancipated and empowered.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The meaning of the word liberty connotes some form of freewill and autonomy which should be the core of human fundamental, as individual liberty and self autonomy gives the humans the credibility of happiness. Thus, since individual freedom is necessary for happiness, therefore, women with the enormous role they play in the family cum society especially as it relates to child bearing and training of children need to be empowered for self-reliance. If the right of choice or freedom is given to women, the government and its functions will witness enormous “functionality” as women will play fundamental roles in the society cum governance. One of the major things this study stands out to achieve is that liberty is essential for the existence required by women for their survival. If a woman is to live on earth, it is right for her to use her mind, it is right for her to act on her own free judgment, it is right for her to work for her values and to keep the product of her work.

It is also to trace the history of women’s involvement in Nigerian political participation. To identify the factors that are responsible for women’s participation in politics. To make suggestions that will enhance women’s participation in party politics.

This work is also hope to achieve set objectives which include: to prove that Nigeria will be a better place if women were to be empowered; to provide explanation for the problem of women inequality in Nigeria; to show that there is something in Mill’s concept of liberty that will be useful in understanding the problem of women empowerment in Nigeria as well as to show that the inequality between men and women is not a natural creation but a socio-cultural construct. Furthermore, recent achievements of women in this present and past administration show cased that if women are given the full support in leadership position, they will do better than their male counterpart.

1.4       Scope of the Study

This thesis is an exposition of Mill’s concept of liberty vis-a-vis women participation in Nigerian politics. The scope of this work centres on Mill’s position on liberty and gender issues and how these ideas on liberty and minority rights as found in Mill’s philosophy will stand a chance of empowering the women, especially the Nigerian women into politics, because the most neglected parts of development in Nigeria is not road or electricity as many may assumed but women. Women need to be developed in order to account for genuine and inclusive development. The scope of the work is limited to Mill’s concept of liberty and women emancipation in Nigerian politics.

1.5       Significance of the Study

The concept of liberty by J. S. Mill provides new insight in the analysis of the problem of women empowerment. His ideas did not descend from the blues; it was as a result of the dastardly act meted out by men to women. This work is significant because it would provide a refreshing addition to the research materials available to students and the general readers interested in liberty and women empowerment especially Nigeria perspective. It is important because it would motivate scholars who have taken the existence of gender inequality for granted to realize its importance. It is also significant because of it focusing attention on Mill’s minority rights with renewed interest in the empowerment of women; no matter how minor they are conceived. The study will be of immense significance to women as a means to inform women for it is often said: if you are not informed, you will be deformed especially now that education is vital for women empowerment.

Finally, this work will help women to realize their full rights and provoke them to reflect on Mary Astell’s argument: “if all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves”.

1.6       Methodology

The method adopted for this research is analysis. Analysis is the process of breaking down a complex topic; a detailed study or examination of something in order to understand more about it as a basis for discussion. The most prominent of these techniques is the analysis of concept known as conceptual analysis. It involves breaking down or analyzing concepts into their constituent parts in order to gain knowledge or better understanding of a particular philosophical issue that the concept is involved.

According to Onyeocha, “ Philosopher tries to clarify an issue by using certain mental tools to break the general concepts under enquiring into smaller ideas that are easier to work with. In practice,this amounts to searching for specific definitions of the ideas or concepts involved, in the philosophical issue under investigation.”4

For a systematic study, this work is organized into Five Chapters. Chapter One is the introduction. Chapter Two focuses on the literature review. Chapter Three tells more about the man John Stuart Mill, his intellectual influences and the concept of liberty. Chapter Four of this work looks into the aspects of women empowerment in Nigeria and the obstacles involved in women’s participation in politics. Chapter Five captures evaluation and conclusion of the work.

1.7       Definition of Terms

To achieve clarification which is the business of analytic philosophy, it is necessary in this work to analyse terms which are essential to this work. These concepts are liberty, empowerment, feminism and politics.

Politics:

According to Odimegwu in his article: “The African Person in the Dialogic of Religion, Politics and Development”, posits that “politics is about the need, the development, the manipulation, the struggle for and the maintenance of the instruments and mechanisms of power and control in human societies and human relations generally”.5 Generally, politics deals with the state or political society, that is a people organized for law within a definite territory. Aristotle’s description of politics as the master science whereby he indicated that politics is concerned with men’s attempts to control their fate on earth, to control the nature around them, and ultimately to control their fellow men in order to direct all these according to their own fundamental beliefs and visions of reality and human existence.

On a general note politics has been variously conceptualized as an influence game, a conflict game, a power game, and as a value game. Each of these perspectives affects the definition of politics.

Liberty:

Various philosophers and thinkers have presented a general view of what liberty means. In his unpublished lecture note on “Socio and Political Philosophy” Okolie Charles (Quoting Hayek) refers to liberty as that condition of men in which coercion of some by others is drastically reduced.6 This definition in order words means that a man who is not subject to the coercion of another person is said to be enjoying individual freedom. In his book The Substance of Politics, Appadorai perceives liberty as “the faculty of willing and the power of doing what has been willed without influences from any other source or from without”.7 From the above views when an individual does something according to his own will, then his action is considered free.

Furthermore, Thomas Jefferson in his book Genius of Liberty posits that, “we hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”. He contends that, “no one automatically has the prerogative to dominate another because to be created equal entails the right to liberty, so this right are not merely legal privileges that government grant or withhold as they please. Rather, such rights are natural as part and parcel of what is meant to being human; they belong equally to all both men and women and would not be violated with impunity”. So, liberty is a condition of existence required by women’s nature for their proper survival.

Empowerment:

Empowerment simply means to empower, and to empower means to give increase capacity or ability to do something. Evans Offor in his book Women Empowerment posits that, to empower means “to delegate legal power to”, “to authorized” “to enable”.8 However Empowerment deals properly with enablement authorization, legalization and what more; the process of uplifting the status of human beings to self-actualization and the realization of the integral development of humanity. Women empowerment is the focus of this work as regards to empowerment. Women empowerment simply means, women developing the capability and ability to control and direct. Empowerment of women therefore is a process and as well as an end result of activities that improve the quality of life of women generally. In her article on “Education for Women Empowerment in Nigeria”, Obidike, N. D. stressed that, “women empowerment portrayed as the process that question the socio-political status quo and seeks to distraction which degrade woman hood and deny the female equity as a human being”.9

Feminism:

Feminism is a movement that advocates for equality between men and women. It developed from a position of opposition, opposition not to men but the oppression of women and first by implication and then implicitly, all peoples who are treated as inferior by dominant groups. It centres its demand on the basis that man constantly frustrates the right of a woman to take control of her own destiny. “It strives towards equalizing women with men in the areas of social, political and economic responsibility”.10

In broad context, the feminist argued that women have not only been accorded rights inferior to those of men, their status is implicitly taken as inferior. This has increase patriarchy and has consequently dampened their emotions, thoughts, activities and subjugation in social relations.

Infrastructural Development As A Tool For Economics Growth

Infrastructural Development As A Tool For Economics Growth

  1. INTRODUCTION

Infrastructure is conceived all over the world as a sine-qua-non for growth and development of a nation or country. It is an engine for economic development, as well as vehicle for social transformation. Infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society. In enterprise or the service and facilities necessary for an economy to function. It can be generally defined as the set of interconnected structural element that provide framework supporting an entire structure of development.

Mr. Ifeanyi Igwilo (2012) suggests that in any modern society, infrastructure plays a pivotal role. In determining the overall productivity and development of a country’s economy, as well as the quality of life of it’s citizens. According to him, infrastructure can be defined as an activity that provides society with the services necessary to conduct dearly life and to engage in production activities, William (1974) defined infrastructure as the systematic framework which underpins communities ability to fulfill its mission of providing a base to it citizens to productive and to nurture social equality.

Thus, Infrastructure facilities are the basic amenities needed for the functioning and operation of a society. They includes road, water supply, power supply, drainage, telecommunication, to mention but a few. A comprehension of Infrastructure spans not only these public works facilities but also the operating procedures, management practices, and development policies that interact together with societal demand. To facilitate the transport of people and goods, provision of water for drinking and a variety of other uses, safe disposal of society’s waste products, provision of energy where it is  needed, and transmission of information within and between communities.

A regions Infrastructure network, broadly speaking is the very socio-economic climate created by the institutions that serve as conduits of trade and investment. Some of these institutions are public and other private. In that case, their role in context of integrations are transformation, helping to change resources into output or to enhance trade by removing barriers. Therefore, an improvement in regional infrastructure is one of the key factors affecting the long-term growth of a region. Studies have show that Infrastructure can have a significant impact on output, income, employment, international trade and quality of life.

In a regional setting, infrastructure is a combination of two components national and international regional Infrastructure. Regional Infrastructure is seen as one of the major determinants of the economic integration process (Vickerman, 2002; Kuroda, Kawai and Nangia 2007; Veriable 2007; Francis, Munching, and Balaoing 2009). Investment towards improving sector policies, governance and the institutional environment need to be targeted. Improved governance and policies have promote prosperity and stability in participating countries.

A study by Asian Development Bank (ADB), World Bank (WB) Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) ADB-WB-JBIC (2005), for instance, found that lack of Infrastructure sector reform and minimal privatization of existing assets gave little room for competition or independent regulation. According to ADB (2006), varying strengths and weaknesses of regulatory regimes between countries make regional infrastructure projects difficult to co-ordinate and develop. The ADB, in its regional co-operation and integration strategy on cross-border infrastructure, tackled a range of issues including public and private roles in provision, regulation and management.

There have been considerable changes in the delivery of national and international infrastructure service world wide. Jones (2006), for example, has noted that in some Asian countries, infrastructure investment has not had the anticipated long-term impact on the quality and extent of utility and transport services. Privatization and competition have had some success in some countries (World Bank, 2005). There is also evidence to suggest that private provision can improve the quality of services and the extent of provision (Levy, 2007). In Asia, the public sector is involved in regulating and supplying the bulk of national and regional infrastructure. Therefore, there is a strong need for regional public policy. Institutional and software components in regional infrastructure ate just as important as hardware components (Kuroda, Kawai and Nangia 2007). For any hardware infrastructure facility to work well-designed institutional and software support is essential. Hardware infrastructure refers to a modern industrial nation. Software infrastructure refers to all the institutions which are required to maintain the economic, health and cultural/social standards of a country, such as the financial system, the education system, the health-care system the system of government and law enforcement as well as emergency services.

The early emphasis was on the provision of infrastructure hardware components. The approach failed to meet the needs of the poor as it neglect the software component. The truth remains that public provision was the majority source of funding for infrastructure, Estache 2006 estimates that the public sector accounts for 70% the private 20% and aid 10% of funding. However, public investment in infrastructure in developing countries was grossly insufficient to meet human needs and public provision of infrastructure was often inadequate insufficient, and incapable of meeting the needs of the poor.

Some of the basic roles or importance of infrastructural development entails the following:-

  1. Infrastructure acts as a stimulus to both economic and social development. They provide the necessary foundations on which should economic base is laid.
  2. It helps to stabilize the urban and rural areas and reduce rural migration to urban centres and other area where such facilities are provided.
  3. Infrastructure helps to make life easier for people by increasing their standard of living and agricultural productivity. If the government of the day provides necessary infrastructure in various urban and rural areas, this will minimize out emigration.
  4. Lack of infrastructure leads to stunted growth in the economy. The economy of any society without adequate infrastructural base in more or less left in the state of paralysis.

Finally, providing infrastructural services to meet the need of the present generation without undermining the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. The almost universally quoted definition was produced in 1987 by the world commission on environment and development (WEED). By this definition, emphasis is laid on the social, economic and political context of development away from the traditional concept as development by 1980 world conservation strategy. The infrastructural development fund (IDF) project was initiated in 1985 as collaborative effort between the government of Nigeria and World Bank in response to the direct need to establish a visible mechanism, for financing infrastructure development and assist states to improve their financial management investment planning and urban infrastructure development and assist states to improve their financial management investment planning and urban infrastructure investment planning and development.

  1. STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

The existing state of infrastructure development/ provision in Aguata Local Government has remine pitiable, mostly in the area of potable water supply system, roads, drainages, electricity, waste disposal units to mention but a few for many years now, has been faced with the problems of inadequate infrastructural development. These problems are felt more on the aspect of road network and portable water supply.

Investigation reveals that some of the road networks connecting the communities are very poor, thus has led to high cost of transportation within and between these communities. The absence of drainage channel points on various sections of the roads have contributed immensely to the roads problems today. Long presence of water either on or beneath the carriage way and shoulder is the major reason for the collapse of many roads. Other reasons, are dumping of refuse on the road side, drains and manholes which block the drainage channels.

  1. AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this study is to improve the infrastructural development in Aguata Local Government Area.

  1. OBJECTIVES

In carrying out this project this will serve as my objectives.

  1. To identify the institution responsible for the provision of infrastructure in the study area.
  2. To examine the level of infrastructure development in the study area.
  3. To find out the factors militating against the development of infrastructure in the study area.
  4. To highlight the importance of infrastructure development to economic growth in Aguata Local Government Area.
  1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  2. What institution and agencies are responsible for infrastructure development in the study area?
  3. What are the level of infrastructure development in the study area?
  4. What are the factors militating against infrastructure development in Aguata?
  5. What are the importances of infrastructure development to economic growth in Aguata?  
  1. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research is highly relevant in several ways. It has policies implication and academic usefulness. The research findings and recommendations will be useful for government policy formulation on urban infrastructure development as a whole.

Secondly, the research will be a valuable resources and source for students of urban and regional planning, and other related disciplines in school of environmental design and technology practitioners in urban and regional planning and allied professions and future researchers. It will be a guide to researcher who might be interested to study a related literature in urban planning.

  1. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The proposed study will be conducted in Aguata Local Government Area, Anambra State. The study will focus on water supply, electricity and roads only. Both male and female in the study area will be interviewed, the study will make recommendations, base on the findings.

  1. THE STUDY AREA

Aguata Local Government Area is one of the twenty one local government area that makes up Anambra State in Nigeria with its headquarters in Aguata (location of the headquarters office building) part of which falls into the city of Ekwulobia while the other part falls within Aguluezechukwu, Aguata Local Government area is made up of fourteen towns namely; Akpo, Achina, Uga, Igboukwu, Isuofia, Umuchu, Aguluezechukwu, Ezinifite, Ikenga, Amesi, Oraeri, Umuona, Nkpologwu and Ekwulobia. The population of Aguata Local Government Area based on the 2006 national census it as a population of 370,972 people.

Phytochemical And Anticrobial Properties Of Bryophyllum Pinnatum

Phytochemical And Anticrobial Properties Of Bryophyllum Pinnatum (Odaa Opuo)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plant, some are responsible for colour and other organoleptic properties. Phytochemical is the term generally used to refer to those chemicals that may have biological significance; for example, Saponins, Flavonoids, Alkaloids e.t.c. There may be as many as 4000 different phytochemicals having potential to affect diseases such ascancer, stroke or metabolic syndrome. (Sneaker,2014). Some phytochemicals with physiological properties may be elements rather than complex organic molecules. For example, selenium, which is abundant in many fruits and vegetables, is dietary mineral involved with major metabolic pathway, including thyroid hormone metabolism and immune function.

An antimicrobial is an agent that kill microorganism or inhibit there growth, (Kingston, 2008). Antimicrobial substances or agents can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibacterial are used against bacterial and antifungals are used against fungi. They can also be classified according to their functions. Agents that kills microbes are called microbial, while those that merely inhibit their growth are called microbiostatics.

Bryophyllum is a plant genus of the Crassulaceae family, that has sometimes been included within the gene Kalanchoe and it is commonly known as sprouting leaf. Bryophyllum pinnatum is also known as life plant, air or maternity plant, love plant, canterbury bells, cathedral bell e.t.c.

Bryophyllum pinnatum is otherwise known as “o daa o puo” in Igbo Eastern Nigeria. The plant flourishes throughout the southern part of Nigeria. (Gill, 2002). A number of species are cultivated as ornamentals and are popular tropical house plant. It is a perennial herb growing widely and used in folkloric medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia. (Oliver, 1993; Dehbuti, Gupta and Devhbuti, 2012). According to world health organization, a medicinal plant is any plant in which one or more of its organs contains substances that can be used for synthesis of useful drug (WHO, 1997). Plant should be investigated to better understand their properties, safety and efficacy (Nascimento, Locatelli, Feitas and silvia, 2000). There are several published reports describing the antimicrobial activity of various crude plant extracts either in single or in combination. (Igoli. Ogaji, Torayiin and Igoli, 2005). It is estimates that there are about 2.5millio species of higher plants and majority of these have not been examined for their pharmacological activities. Plant based antimicrobials represent a vast untapped source. The use of plant extract for medicinal treatment has become popular especially now when people are beginning to realize that the effective life span of antimicrobial is limited and over-prescription and misuse cause antimicrobial resistance. Alam, Karim and Khan, 2009). This research is therefore aimed at determining the phytochemical potential and antimicrobial properties of Bryophyllum pinnatum against selected organism.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

In recent years, drug resistance to human pathogen bacteria has been commonly reported from all over the world. (Paddock and Wise, 1999; Singh, Chaud, Yadara and Sanyal, 2002; Davis, 2004, Robin, Anrily, Alexander, Loeto and Keith, 2008).

However, the situation is alarming in developing as well as developed countries due to indiscriminate use of antimicrobials. Therefore, alternative antimicrobial strategies are urgently needed and thus this solution was led to re-evaluation of the therapeutic use of ancient remedies such as of the therapeutic use of ancient remedies such as plant. (Mandal, Pal, Chaudhury and Deb, 2009; Basualdo, Syroyi, Finola and Juam, 2007).

1.3     Purpose/Aim  of the study

The main objectives of this study is to extract and investigate phytochemicals from Bryophyllum pinnatum and investigate its antimicrobial properties.

Specifically, this work will achieve the following:

  1. Extract a juice from Bryophyllum pinnatum.
  2. Test for the phytochemical constituents of Bryophyllum pinnatum.
  3. Examine the antimicrobial properties of the extract in some microorganism

1.4     Significance of the Study

At the successful completion of the study, the result will be beneficial to the indigenes which this plants abounds. They can use it to treat inflammatory diseases.

This plant can be used as an antimicrobial drug to cure inflammation, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

A tea made from the leaves can be used in treatment of dysentery, diarrhea, cholera and phthisis. The leaves are made pliable by hold over fire are applied to wounds, bruises, boils and also can be used as poultice in bad ulcer.

1.5     Scope of the Study

The plant B. pinnatum will be collected from Umuchu in Aguata Local Government Area, Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria, West Africa.

This study centered on the phytochemical screening and Antimicrobial properties of the leaves of this plant. The antimicrobial properties was done on the following microorganism: E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S.aureus and the phytochemical screening will be restricted to the following natural product: Saponins, Tannins, Steroids, Alkaloids, Flavonoid and Terpenes.

1.6     Research Question

  1. Are there biological active compounds in pinnatum?
  2. Are there agents in pinnatum that can kill microorganism or inhibit their growth?

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Plants are rich source of natural product. They form major parts of ingredients in almost all system of therapeutics. Most of the pharmaceutical industries are conducing extensive research on plants collected from the rainforest and other places of their potential medicinal value. Modern allopathic system of medicine is also based on plants and herbs.

Medicinal plants are relevant in both developing and developed nations of the world as source of drugs or herbal extract. Various chemotherapeutic purposes continue to play a dominant role in maintenance of human health since antiquities. Over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are of natural products origin (Kokate, 1994) and natural products play an important role in drug developing program of the pharmaceutical industry.

The taxonomy of Bryophyllum pinnatum is presented below.

Kingdom                                             Plantae

Phylum                                              Angiosperm

Order                                       Saxifragales

Family                                               Crassulaceae

Genus                                                Bryophyllum

Species                                              B.pinnatum

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION

The plant is an erect, more or less branched smooth, succulent herb. 0.4 to 1.4m in height, leaves are simple or pinnately compound with the leaflets elliptic, usually about 10cm long, thick, succulent and scalloped margins which can develop while still attached to the plant or when detached, a fascinating characteristic that ears its name.

Food contents are carbohydrates, protein, lipids, and iodine. The herb is good source of mineral elements such as Na, Ca, K, P, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. Sugar content includes raffinose, lactose, sucrose, glucose, galactose, and fructose. The plant is also a good source Ascorbic acid, Riboflavin, Thiamine, and Niacin.

Traditional Uses of Bryophyllum pinnatum

The leaves and leaf juice have been used traditionally as anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcer, anti-septic, hypocholesterolemic and cough suppressant (Ali,et al. 2013).

The plant is effective in treating cough and bronchitis. Heated leaves helps cure swelling and abscesses. It is also used in cases of diabetes. (Cowan, 1999).

A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea and cholera. The juice of the leaves is used in treating eye inflammations, cuts and wound as well as ear sore. The plant performs the following functions. The plant is astringe (a substance which draws tissue together, thus restricting the flow of blood). A diuretic (a medicine that promotes the formation of urine by the kidney). An emollient (a substance that softens the skin). A hemostatic (a medicine that stops bleeding). A depurative (a medicine that purifies the blood or human). (Radominska, 2010).

Phytochemicals: Are complex chemical substances of different composition and are found as secondary plant metabolite in these plants. (Kayode and Kayode, 2011).

Alkaloids: Are a group of naturally occurring chemical compound (natural products) that contain nitrogen atoms. This group also include some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties (Manske, 1995). Some synthethic compounds of similar structure are also termed alkaloids.

Abortion And Dignity Of Human Life: A Moral Consideration

Abortion And Dignity Of Human Life: A Moral Consideration

CHAPTER ONE

MEANING AND THE NATURE OF ABORTION

“Abortion is the removal of the product of human conceptus [foetus or non-viable human being] whether before or after implantation in the womb”[1]. It is any act of the removal of the unborn baby from the moment of fertilization to the time of birth. Traditionally, it is   removal of the preborn child from the uterus before he/she has reached the age of viability [i.e. at the point when a Continue reading Abortion And Dignity Of Human Life: A Moral Consideration

The Comparative Analysis Of Agency Practice In Enugu Urban

The Comparative Analysis Of Agency Practice In Enugu Urban (Case Study Of Enugu State)

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
    • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Shelter is a basic necessity in life. An individual can satisfy this need by either occupying his own property (owner’s occupied) or renting another person’s property. In our traditional society, the need for shelter is mainly met through the first alternative that is owner occupation. With the emergency of urban centers, the situation has changed many people are no longer able to own Continue reading The Comparative Analysis Of Agency Practice In Enugu Urban

Micro Organisms Associated With The Palms Of Fish Handlers

Micro Organisms Associated With The Palms Of Fish Handlers In Oko, Orumba North L.G.A Anambra State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

According to Mader, (2001), fishes are aquatic, gill-breathing vertebrates that usually have fins and skin covered with scales.

Also, Taylor, Green and Stout, (2002), defined fish as a variety cold-blooded vertebrate animal that lives in fresh and salt water, they breathe through the gills and use fins and tail for swimming. Continue reading Micro Organisms Associated With The Palms Of Fish Handlers

Enhancing Teacher Education Through Entrepreneurship Education

 

Enhancing Teacher Education Through Entrepreneurship Education Implications For Job Opportunities In Aguata  LGA Of Anambra State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The term Entrepreneur was first used in the early 18th Century by an Irish man by name Cantillon who was then living in France. The term therefore is a French word. Entrepreneurship is a term used broadly in connection with the innovative modern. An industrial business leader has been described as the person who Continue reading Enhancing Teacher Education Through Entrepreneurship Education

The Effects Of Television Violence On Adults

The Effects Of Television Violence On Adults(A Case Study Of Aguata Local Government Area

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This topic has become very essential on the violent behavior often exhibited by most youths in the society. is a great relationship between the amount of television viewing and various indices of fear, the more one watch violent television the more one estimate the amount of violent in real world. Continue reading The Effects Of Television Violence On Adults

Corporate Strategy As An Effective Tool For Organizational Survival

Corporate Strategy As An Effective Tool For Organizational Survival (A Case Study Of Mtn Nigeria Owerri Imo State)

CHAPTER 2

RELATED  LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature review is the process of reading, analyzing, evaluating and summarizing scholarly materials about a specific topic.

The result of a literature review may be complied in a report or they may serve as part of a research article, thesis or grant proposal. Continue reading Corporate Strategy As An Effective Tool For Organizational Survival